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- Author or Editor: T. A. Nell x
Several pulse solutions were tested for their effectiveness in preventing leaf senescence on four cut oriental lily cultivars (Lilium sp. `Acapulco', `Kissproof', `Noblesse' and `Star Gazer'). Stems were pulsed 24 hours after harvest for 1 hour, stored in boxes in the dark for 5 days at 3 °C (37.4 °F) then evaluated in postharvest conditions. A new commercial product called Chrysal BVB, a proprietary mixture manufactured by Pokon & Chrysal (Miami) containing cytokinine and gibberellic acids, was the most effective product tested. Chrysal BVB [1 mL·L–1 (0.1%)] prevented leaf chlorosis and abscission on `Acapulco' and `Noblesse' and significantly reduced it by 82% on `Star Gazer' and by 69% on `Kissproof'. Stems pulsed in Fascination, a commercial mixture containing 1.8% gibberellins (GA4+7) and 1.8% benzyladenine [5.4 mg·L–1 (ppm) each], virtually prevented leaf chlorosis on `Noblesse', reduced it by 50% or more on `Acapulco' and `Star Gazer', and significantly delayed it 8 days on `Kissproof'. A 10 μm (2 ppm) pulse in thidiazuron, a substituted phenylurea with cytokinin-like properties, delayed leaf chlorosis on `Star Gazer' but to a lesser extent compared to BVB and Fascination. Chrysal SVB, a propri-etary mixture manufactured by Pokon & Chrysal containing gibberellic acid, had no effect on reducing leaf chlorosis on `Star Gazer'. None of the pulse solutions had adverse effects on bud opening, flower quality or vase life. Maintaining stems in a bulb flower preservative significantly reduced leaf chlorosis and abscission in all cultivars when stems were not pretreated with a pulse solution or when a pulse solution was ineffective.
Brassaia actinophylla Endl., Chamaedorea elegans Mart., Dieffenbachia maculata (Lodd.) G. Don ‘Exotica’, Dracaena marginata Lam., and Ficus benjamina L. were grown for 1 year under 13 or 26 μE m−2sec−1 from Cool White fluorescent lamps for 12, 18, or 24 hours daily durations. Increasing light duration to 24 hours daily decreased quality of all plants tested, with Brassaia, Chamaedorea, and Dieffenbachia being most affected. The primary symptoms resulting from constant light were foliar chlorosis and decrease in plant quality, although necrotic spotting appeared at times. By experiment termination, best plants overall were associated with 26 μE m−2sec−1 light for 12 or 18 hours duration and poorest with 26 μE m−2sec−1 light and 24 hours duration. A second factorial experiment with Dieffenbachia and Dracaena tested effects of 3 fertilizer levels (0, 0.67, or 1.30 g Osmocote/3 months per 15-cm pot) under 2 light intensities (13 or 26 μE m−2sec−1) and 2 light durations (12 or 24 hours) on plant quality. Higher fertilizer levels had a limited effect on plant quality, while influence of light intensity and duration was similar to the initial experiment.
Lateral budbreak was increased significantly on ‘Welkeri’ dieffenbachia [Dieffenbachia maculata (Lodd.) G. Don] with foliar applications of 6-benzylamino purine (BA) at 500,1000, and 2000 mg/liter. Sodium 2,3:4,6-bis-0-(1-methylethylidene)-a-L-xylo-2-hexulofuranosonic acid (dikegulac) at 1000, 1500, and 2000 mg/liter and (2-chloroethyl)phosphonic acid (ethephon) at 500, 1000, and 2000 mg/liter had no effect on branching. Plant height was unaffected by application of growth regulators although moderate foliar necrosis was caused by the highest rate of BA.
Fresh, unfixed meristems of rose (Rosa hybrida L.) were viewed in the scanning electron microscope to determine the morphological differences and organogenesis of flowering and blind shoots. Gluteraldehyde fixed, ethanol dehydrated and critical point dried tissue was severely desiccated with individual cell walls becoming concave. Fresh tissue remained turgid for at least 10 min in the microscope. Visible signs of flower initiation were evidenced by the presence of sepal primordia followed by differentiation of petals, anthers and stigma. No evidence of flower initiation was observed in the blind shoot.
‘Tropicana’ rose plants (Rosa hybrida L.) were exposed to increasing periods of high intensity light (640 W/m2) beginning immediately after flower removal, in the fall and winter of 1975 and spring and summer of 1976. Flowers were also removed from ‘Forever Yours’ and ‘Cara Mia’ plants in the summer of 1976 and shoot length, stem diameter and bud diameter were evaluated as morphological indicators of blind shoot development. Plants were transferred to a growth chamber (300 W/m2) following the high intensity lighting treatment. Plants grown in the growth chamber without supplemental lighting had the highest percentage of blind shoots. Maximum blindness occurred during the winter months regardless of lighting treatments. Blind shoot production decreased with increased duration of supplemental lighting. Shoot length proved to be an effective indicator of blind shoots as early as 10 days following lateral bud initiation on all cultivars. The value of bud diameter and stem diameter as indicators of blindness was dependent on cultivars.
Foliar spray applications to ‘Gloria’ azalea (Rhododendron obtusum) of daminozide, chlormequat chloride, daminozide/chlormequat chloride combination, ancymidol, paclobutrazol, fluometralin, NAA, and IBA were applied prior to bypass shoot development. All treatments except IBA reduced bypass shoot length. NAA treatments were phytotoxic, and fluometralin inhibited flowering. Rate of flower development was retarded by daminozide, chlormequat chloride, and daminozide/chlormequat chloride combination, but was unaffected by ancymidol, paclobutrazol, fluometralin, NAA, and IBA. Paclobutrazol was the most efficient and effective treatment in reducing bypass shoot length without affecting flower size or time to flower. Chemical names used: butanedioic acid mono (2,2-dimethylhydrazide) (daminozide); 2-chloro-N,N,N-trimethyl-ethanaminium chloride (chlormequat chloride): α-cyclopropyl-α-(4-methoxyphenyI)-5-pyrimidinemethanol (ancymidol): β,[(4-chlorophenyl)methyl)-α-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-1H-1,2,4-triazole-1-ethanol (paclobutrazol): 2-chloro-N-[2,6-dinitro-4-trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-N-ethyl-6-fluorobenzenemethanamine (fluometralin): 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA): 1H-indole-3-butyric acid (IBA).
‘Minetto’ lettuce seeds (Lactuca sativa L.) were germinated at 35°C after different initial imbibition periods at 20°. No germination occurred at 35° in untreated seeds when the imbibition period was less than 6 hours. Maximum germination occurred after the seeds were imbibed for 16 hours. Most seeds primed in 1% K3PO4 at 15° for 9 hours then redried, germinated at 35°. However, germination increased gradually by increasing the time of early imbibition exposure to 9 hours. The endosperm membrane of seeds primed for 9-18 hours in a 1% K3PO4 solution did not rupture. Rupture of the membrane was evident after 21 hours of priming. A progressive loosening of the membrane after 9 hours of priming may be indicative of membrane weakening, possibly enhancing seed germination at high temperature.
This study examined three transport systems used to transport fresh, non-stored cut flowers from Bogotá, Colombia, to the United States on a monthly basis for 1 year. Five cultivars of cut rose (Rosa hybrida), alstroemeria (Alstroemeria peruviana), carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus), and gerbera (Gerbera jamesonii) were commercially transported using a 7-day conventional distribution system with temperature controls and two rapid transport systems (3-day or 24-hour) with little or no temperature controls, respectively. Temperatures during the 24-hour transport system increased steadily and temperatures were at or above 10 °C for ≈18 h, with half of that time above 15 °C for all shipments. The 3- and 7-day systems had temperature fluctuations ranging from 3 to 24 °C and 3 to 19 °C, respectively. Flowers transported using the rapid transport systems had a significantly longer vase life compared with the 7-day transport in 83% of the shipments of alstroemeria and roses, in 58% of the shipments of carnations, and in 50% of the shipments of gerberas. Vase life increased 5.6% to 17.1% (0.7 to 2.1 days) for roses, 3.2% to 16.7% (0.5 to 2.7 days) for alstroemerias, 12.8% to 34.6% (1.1 to 6.2 days) for gerberas, and 4.6% to 8.8% (1.1 to 2.3 days) for carnations when using the rapid transport systems compared with the 7-day transport system. Some cultivars were more tolerant of the longer transport. The results show that when using fresh, non-stored flowers, the rapid transport systems had equal or longer vase life than the 7-day transport system in the majority of shipments for each flower species. Results also demonstrate that better temperature management during transport is a critical issue in the floral industry that needs to be improved upon.
The vase life of many cut flowers is often limited by bacterial occlusion of stem bases. In this study, we tested the efficacy of a novel antimicrobial agent, aqueous chlorine dioxide (ClO2), to extend the longevity of cut Gerbera flowers by reducing the number of bacteria in vase water. Commercially mature and freshly cut Gerbera jamesonii `Monarck' flowers were placed into clean vases containing deionized water and 0, 2, 5, 10, 20, and 50 μL·L-1 ClO2. Stems were then maintained in solutions at 21 ± 0.5 °C and 42 ± 11% relative humidity until the end of vase life. Inclusion of 2, 5, and 10 μL·L-1 ClO2 in vase water had beneficial effects on flower longevity. For instance, treatment with 5 and 10 μL·L-1 ClO2 extended flower longevity by 1.4-fold or 3.7 days, as compared to control flowers (0 μL·L-1 ClO2). In contrast, exposure to the higher concentrations of 20 and 50 μL·L-1 ClO2 did not extend flower vase life. Relative to control flowers, treatment with 10 μL·L-1 ClO2 delayed the onset of detectable bacterial colonization of vase solutions from day 3 to day 6 of vase life. However, this ClO2 treatment did not reduce the number of bacteria that subsequently accumulated in vase water as compared to control flowers. Treatment with 10 μL·L-1 ClO2 also increased rates of solution uptake by stems and reduced the loss of flower fresh weight over time. These results highlight the potential use of ClO2 treatments to extend the postharvest longevity of Gerbera flowers.