Brassica rapa var. rapa (turnip) is considered a main source of food for the inhabitants of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) and its adjacent highlands when other crops are scarce. The QTP ranges from lat. 25.59°N to 39.49°N and from long. 73.29°E to 104.40°E, whereas the Yunnan Plateau ranges from lat. 20.00°N to 29.16°N and from long. 96.00°E to 110.19°E. A comparison between the turnip landraces of two different plateau environments can provide a mechanistic insight into plant adaptation in highlands. The aim of this investigation was to understand the patterns in variation in genome size (GS) between the turnip landraces of two plateau environments. We used a well-established protocol to count chromosome number and performed propidium iodide flow cytometry to measure GS. No polyploidy was detected among the turnip landraces tested, and 15.5% variation in GS was observed between the landraces. No consistent pattern pertaining to GS variation emerged after the environmental variables were considered. Thus, we propose that such pattern may reflect the indirect effect of selection, random process, genetic drift, or some other factors on GS through interaction of life-form and phenotypic traits.