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  • Author or Editor: Suping Qu x
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The omission of second division gene (OSD1) gene plays a fundamental role in meiosis and is associated with 2n gamete formation in Arabidopsis thaliana. The objective of this work was to unravel the mechanisms leading to 2n pollen production, and isolate and analyze the expression patterns of OSD-like (OSDL) genes in carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus). We found an absence of the second meiotic division caused the formation of 2n pollen. Three homoeologous genes were cloned and labeled as OSDLa, OSDLb, and OSDLc in a diploid carnation. The cDNAs were 1180 bp for OSDLa, 1288 bp for OSDLb, and 971 bp for OSDLc. A strong similarity was found between the amino sequences of OSDLb and OSDLc. An evident feature of OSDLs proteins is the presence of D-box and MR-tail domains; however, the GxEN/KEN-box domain, which is distinct among the other plant proteins was absent. Quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis showed that OSDL genes maintain continuous expression in buds and other tissues. OSDLa has the highest expression in buds of 1.1–1.2 cm long (stage 2), and OSDLb has a high level of expression in buds of 0.9–1.0 cm long (stage 1) and stage 2 buds and ovary tissues in three carnation cultivars. The expression level of OSDLc was highest in ovaries. These expression patterns strongly suggest that OSDLs in carnation involve male meiosis and ovary development. These findings can have potential applications in fundamental polyploidization research and plant breeding programs in carnation.

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Phalaenopsis is a globally popular potted plant possessing a few aromatic cultivars, but analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in these cultivars is limited. Here, using nonaromatic cultivar Phal. Big Chili as a control, flower VOCs of four aromatic cultivars were investigated by headspace solid-phase microextraction in conjunction with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results revealed that 43 VOCs classified into seven categories were identified in the nonaromatic Phal. Big Chili and four aromatic cultivars. Hexyl acetate and hexan-1-ol were common VOCs in aromatic cultivars. On the basis of partial least squares discriminant analysis, the five cultivars were classified into three groups, the nonaromatic Phal. Big Chili (group 1) and the strong-aromatic Phal. Cherry Tomato (group 2) were easily distinguished from the other three aromatic cultivars (group 3). Moreover, 17 key VOCs with the different aromatic thresholds and characteristics were identified in the four aromatic cultivars, and the types and relative contents of key VOCs varied among the aromatic cultivars, resulting in different characteristics and intensities of floral fragrance in aromatic cultivars. In aromatic cultivars, the types and relative contents of key VOCs in Phal. Cherry Tomato significantly exceeded those in the other three cultivars. Eight key VOCs belonging to terpenoids, olefins, and alcohols had the highest relative contents in Phal. ‘Cherry Tomato’, which led to a strong and mixed aromatic type containing cedarwood, camphor, and mint fragrances.

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