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  • Author or Editor: Sun-Tay Choi x
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Modified atmosphere (MA) packaging has been used to maintain quality of fresh-cut lettuce, but O2 depletion and excessive CO2 accumulation can be injurious. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of delayed MA packaging using three different films on quality maintenance of fresh-cut iceberg lettuce. Iceberg lettuce leaves were sliced, washed, dried, and placed for 0, 5, 10, and 15 hours under air atmosphere at 5 °C. Samples were packaged with 2.9 and 16.6 pmol·kg·Pa·s, oxygen transmission rate (OTR) films and microperforated film (P-plus), and stored for 12 days at 5 °C. Results indicated that delayed packaging affected gas composition (O2 and CO2), fermentative volatile production, off-odor, color, and tissue electrolyte leakage. With 2.9 OTR film, longer delayed time maintained quality by inhibiting off-odor development and the accumulation of ethanol. However, delayed packaging was not effective in maintaining quality of samples packaged with 16.6 OTR film and P-plus film. Regardless of delayed time, all 16.6 OTR-packaged samples had severe discoloration after 7 days of storage. All delayed treatments packaged with P-plus film attained the desired O2 (3–5 kPa) and CO2 levels (10–12 kPa) from day 9 to the end of storage. A 15-hour delayed packaging into packages prepared from 2.9 OTR film and samples packaged with P-plus film maintained quality by inhibiting off-odor development. The results indicate that delayed packaging could be an alternative method when fresh-cut lettuce is packaged with low OTR films.

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The relation between sensory and instrumental measurements of apple texture was investigated to find an effective postharvest texture measurement method of apple. Then nondestructive evaluation of texture and weight loss using NIR was conducted. `Gala' and `Fuji' apples were sampled during storage at 20 °C with 80% to 85% relative humidity. Instrumental measurements included penetration, compression, and bending tests with a texture analyzer, and sensory attributes were finger firmness, hardness, crispness, and mealiness. The penetration test was more effective for postharvest texture measurement than compression and bending tests in the correlation between sensory texture and instrumental measurement. As texture evaluation parameters, elastic modulus (slope before rupture point) and work (area to penetrate) of penetration test were more sensitive than maximum force. Maximum force, generally used as the parameter for texture evaluation, had a little problem under influence of weight loss in `Fuji'; however, elastic modulus and work could detect the texture change of apple under influence of weight loss as well as softening. In the investigation of possibility of nondestructive evaluation using NIR of texture, the MLR analysis for elastic modulus determination of penetration test showed good correlation (R = 0.82, SEP = 2.66) in combination of two cultivars. Also, in the weight loss evaluation, MLR analysis showed the prediction correlation of 0.79 and SEP 1.08 in combination of two cultivars. These results showed the possibility of nondestructive evaluation using NIR of postharvest texture and weight loss.

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To investigate quality changes of garlic associated with cultivars and storage conditions, northern type `Seosan' and sub-tropical type `Daeseo' garlics were stored at controlled atmosphere (O2 3%, CO2 5%, -1 ± 1°C) condition, low temperature (-1 ± 1°C), and room temperature (20 ± 5°C). The rate of sprouting, weight loss, enzymatic pyruvic acid content, and degree of greening in crushed garlic were determined during storage. The rate of sprouting was higher in `Daeseo' than in `Seosan' garlic in all storage conditions. Sprouting was effectively suppressed in low temperature and controlled atmosphere storage. Weight loss in `Daeseo' garlic was higher than in `Seosan' garlic. Enzymatic pyruvic acid (EP) contents increased for 3 months storage period, and then decreased gradually as the storage period was prolonged at room or low temperatures. However, EP content decreased dramatically during storage under CA condition in both cultivars. When garlic bulbs were crushed, greening appeared in the garlic stored at low temperature for more than one month. However, greening did not occur in the crushed garlic bulbs stored in CA condition.

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