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  • Author or Editor: Steven P. Castagnoli x
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The Internet has expanded access to real-time decision tools for pest management in agriculture. Starting in 2000, site-specific weather data and decision tools for key insect pests and diseases became available through the Internet to fruit growers and pest control advisors (PCAs) in the Hood River Valley of Oregon. Adoption of these decision tools was supported by educational programs conducted by extension. In this study, surveys were conducted to assess the importance of different sources of pest management information and the adoption of four Internet-based pest management decision tools by fruit growers and PCAs in the Hood River Valley. Growers relied on diverse sources for pest management information and ranked PCAs as the most important source for making pest management decisions. Grower use of the Internet-based pest management decision tools was relatively low despite computer ownership and Internet use that were higher than national trends. Growers preferred the website that provided the most complete access to up-to-date weather data and pertinent pest and disease models, despite somewhat less streamlined access. PCA use of the decision tools was proportionately higher, and included greater use of additional websites. Both growers and PCAs considered use of the Internet tools to have important benefits on pest management programs. In the Hood River Valley, fruit growers had access to technology-driven decision support tools, but continued to rely on more traditional information sources, particularly PCAs, for making pest management decisions. In view of trends in shrinking extension resources, these results suggest that the most efficient use of time and potential for greatest impact can be derived from focusing educational efforts on PCAs.

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Clonal selection of European winegrapes (Vitis vinifera) allows the exploitation of an important source of genetic diversity. In the 1980s, many `Pinot noir' clones, previously unavailable in the U.S., were imported from France. To provide information on their performance under Oregon soil and climate conditions, 20 `Pinot noir' clones were established in a replicated trial in Alpine, Ore., planted in 1989. In this study, yield components, pruning weight, and juice composition of the 20 clones were measured for the 1995 through 1999 seasons. Skin anthocyanin concentration was measured for the 1996 through 1999 seasons. Clones included in the trial were Colmar (COL) 538, Dijon (DJN) 10/18, DJN 113, DJN 114, DJN 115, DJN 375, DJN 60, Espiguette (ESP) 236, ESP 374, Foundation Plant Services (FPS) 2A, FPS 4, FPS 10, FPS 16, FPS 17, FPS 22, FPS 23, FPS 29, FPS 31, FPS 32, and FPS 33. For all responses except juice pH and skin anthocyanin concentration, there were significant clone by year interactions. COL 538 had the highest 5-year mean yield (2.93 kg/vine); FPS 29 had the lowest (1.21 kg/vine). DJN 10/18, FPS 4, FPS 22, and FPS 31 were among the five highest-yielding clones. Other low-yielding clones included DJN 115, ESP 374, FPS 17, and FPS 23. Pruning weights were generally correlated with yields. COL 538 had the highest 5-year mean pruning weight (0.81 kg/vine) and FPS 17 had the lowest (0.48 kg/vine). Other clones with relatively high pruning weights were FPS 2A, FPS 4, and FPS 22. Other clones with low pruning weights were FPS 23 and FPS 29. FPS 22 and FPS 17 had the highest (1.13 g/berry) and lowest (0.93 g/berry) 5-year mean berry weights, respectively. Clones with 5-year mean cluster weights >100 g included DJN 10/18, ESP 236, and FPS 31. Those with cluster weights <80 g were DJN 115, FPS 17, and FPS 29. FPS 2A had the highest 5-year mean juice soluble solids concentration (SSC) at harvest (23.8%). FPS 10, FPS 29, DJN 113, and DJN 115 also had relatively high SSC. DJN 60 had the lowest 5-year mean SSC at harvest (22.0%). FPS 22, FPS 33, COL 538, and ESP 374 also had relatively low 5-year mean SSC at harvest. DJN 115 had the highest 5-year mean juice pH (3.15). DJN 113, FPS 29, and FPS 10 also had relatively high juice pH. FPS 22 had the lowest 5-year mean juice pH at harvest (2.97), and DJN 10/18, FPS 2A, and FPS 17 also had relatively low pH. Clones with higher SSC and pH generally had lower titratable acidity. FPS 2A had both high SSC and high titratable acidity. FPS 23 and FPS 17 had the highest skin anthocyanin concentration (2.10 and 2.07 mg·g-1 berry, respectively). The range of skin anthocyanin concentration among the other clones was relatively narrow (1.17-1.47 mg·g-1 berry). FPS 2A, FPS 4, and FPS 10 generally had above mean SSC and yield. FPS 29, DJN 113, DJN 114, and DJN 115 consistently had above mean SSC but below mean yield.

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Studies were performed on the development of dormancy, cold hardiness, and desiccation tolerance, and the effect of manual defoliation timing on performance of `Fuji' and `Braeburn' apple nursery stock. Dormancy development, response to defoliation, and desiccation tolerance of apple differed from those reported for other temperate woody plant species. Dormancy development in `Fuji' was approximately two weeks ahead of `Braeburn', and was strongly regulated by temperature. Photoperiod had no influence on dormancy development of `Fuji'. Desiccation tolerance of both varieties was greatest just prior to the onset of dormancy and early dormancy. This pattern in the seasonal development of tolerance to desiccation is not typical of temperate woody plant species. Early defoliation was detrimental to performance of `Braeburn', but had little effect on `Fuji'. Early defoliation promoted earlier spring budbreak in `Fuji'. Development of freezing tolerance in both apple varieties was typical of other woody plants, and coincided with the onset of dormancy. Maximum hardiness was achieved after the requirements for dormancy were completely satisfied.

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