Hypertext applications have grown from highlighted index referencing tools used in “help” windows to sophisticated file sharing between many computers linked via the World Wide Web (WWW). Software such as Mosaic makes this link easy and convenient by using “Hypertext Markup Language” (HTML). Most universities and many companies have installed WWW servers and have provided disk space for general use. Horticulture departments and many botanical gardens across the country and all over the world are adapting to this technology by providing access to extension information sheets, newsletters, and selected manuscripts. Pesticide chemical manufacturers are also establishing WWW servers with the intent on providing rapid access to pesticide labels and material safety data sheets (MSDS). For local classroom use, HTML using a WWW server can provide an innovative and alternative means for delivering lecture material.
Steven E. Newman
Scaling from dissolved and suspended solids in irrigation water reduces the efficiency of greenhouse irrigation systems. Water deposits inside pipes reduce water flow and deposits may reduce the flow through irrigation emitters, often clogging them. If not properly maintained, the clogging of emitters requires constant maintenance. This results in considerable labor expense and/or emitter replacement. Scaling inside irrigation system pipes also has the potential to harbor plant pathogens from the resulting biofilms. Oxcide, a novel hypochlorous acid (HOCl) compound, is produced electrochemically by removing sodium and hydroxide from sodium hypochlorite. The elimination of sodium hydroxide from the product creates a nontoxic oxidizer. A system to inject Oxcide into irrigation water at a commercial Colorado greenhouse was installed to maintain irrigation efficiency of emitters and irrigation lines during Winter 2003. The oxidation reduction potential (ORP) was monitored and visual evaluations of irrigation equipment in the Oxcide treated zones compared to those zones not treated with Oxcide was conducted. During January through March, geranium stock plants were irrigated with water that maintained ORP levels at around 600 mV. Visual ratings of the irrigation emitters revealed that the injection of Oxcide in the irrigation water did reduce the level of deposition. Deposition on the main feed lines was so thick that they hindered the complete closure of existing valves. Treatment of the irrigation water Oxcide injection for six months successfully removed of the scale and deposits from the water line.
Andrea Crowell and Steven E. Newman
The cut-flower industry is continually searching for unique products to introduce to the floral industry. Our objective was to select potential species for trial as new greenhouse-grown alternative cut flowers. Hardy perennials from the Rock/Alpine Garden at the Denver Botanical Garden served as the selection pool. Plants in this collection were fitting due to their durability in Colorado conditions and their rugged unique beauty. Several trial cuts of potential species were taken, and the flowers were evaluated for flower size, stem length, stem strength, foliage, vase life, usefulness, and general aesthetic quality. Next, an informal survey of growers, retailers, researchers, and consumers was taken to determine which flowers had already been seen on the market and which flowers would be potentially successful in the trade. After assimilating the information, the following six species were selected for trial future greenhouse production: Anthyllis vulneraria, Dianthus giganteus, Diascia integerrima, Echium lusitanium, Heuchera sanguinea `Bressingham Hybrids', and Trollius yunnanensis.
Muhammad Maqbool and Steven E. Newman
Twelve snapdragon cultivars of different response groups were grown in a double polyethylene greenhouse to determine the impact of no root-zone heat (RZH) and 22C RZH at 15 or 20C night air temperature (NT) on flower quality. Data were recorded when the first floret of each stem showed color and harvested when the lower third of the florets were open, Flower quality was evaluated at harvest based upon stem length and fresh weight using Society of American Florists standards. Cultivars `Butterfly White II', `Hercules', `Navajo', and West Virginia' (Group II) were the first to bloom under 20C NT regardless of RZH; whereas cultivars `Oklahoma', Houston', and `Potomac Pink' (Group IV) were delayed. Similar trends were observed under 15C NT, but the crop was harvested a few days earlier with RZH as compared to no heat. Flower quality was better under 15C NT.
Steven E. Newman and Jeffrey S. Tant
An experiment was conducted to determine the influence of eight commercial root-zone media (four peat based and four pine bark based) on the effects of paclobutrazol applied to Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd. `Eckespoint Celebrate 2' as an impregnated spike or a drench. Paclobutrazol treatments had the least influence on stem elongation of poinsettias grown in the peat-based medium containing Bacctite, a compressed peat product designed to increase aeration and cation exchange capacity, or composted pine bark ground to a particle size that could pass through an opening 1 cm or smaller. Spikes were more effective at reducing shoot elongation than drenches. Spike treatments also resulted in lower bract dry-matter accumulation than drenches. Paclobutrazol applied as a spike to poinsettias at pinch could combine pinching and chemical growth regulator application into one simultaneous operation. Chemical name used: (±)-(R*,R*)-beta-[(4-chlorophenyl)methyl]-alpha-(1, 1,-dimethyl)-1H-1,2,4,-triazole-1-ethanol (paclobutrazol).
Shelly D. Dueitt and Steven E. Newman
Rice hulls, a by-product of rice milling, were used at various rates in greenhouse media. The objective of this study was to determine if rice hulls can replace peat moss. Hulls, aged and fresh, were blended with vermiculite and peat moss from 0 to 50%, by volume replacing peat moss. Physical and chemical properties including bulk density, total pore space, water retention, pH and soluble salt concentrations were determined in the media blends. Marigolds and salvia were transplanted into 13 cm azalea pots containing each media. The bulk density increased with increasing levels of hulls. Total pore space of the media before planting was decreased with increasing levels of aged hulls, but no differences were detected at the termination of the study. Water retention of both fresh and aged hulls at all levels of media were equivalent to the control media. Before planting, the total soluble salts for media containing fresh hulls was greater than with aged hulls. The pH of the media increased with increasing levels of hulls, fresh and aged. The greatest dry weight and plant height was observed when the media contained 10 to 20% aged hulls.
Allen D. Owings and Steven E. Newman
The action of foliar-applied uniconazole, paclobutrazol, dikegulac-sodium, ancymidol, 6-BA, GA4+7, and 6-BA + GA4+7 On container–grown Photinia × fraseri was studied over a one year period. Vegetative growth habit was evaluated at three month intervals. Shoot dry weight and histological examination of stern anatomy in the apical meristematic region was conducted at experiment termination.
Several plant growth regulators, primarily uniconazole, 6-BA, 6-BA + GA4+7, and dikegulac-sodium, stimulated lateral branching. Linear increases in lateral branching occurred as application rates increased. High application rates of uniconazole and paclobutrazol created an asymmetrical growth habit and decreased dry weight accumulation.
Steven E. Newman and Susan H. Ellsbury
A library skills workbook was developed for horticulture students to provide them with instruction in the use of bibliographic research materials and services available to them from the university library system. The effectiveness of the library skills workbook was tested by comparing pre- and post-test scores of undergraduate and graduate students. International and national graduate students were compared. Graduate students scored higher on the pre-test than did undergraduates. Students from the United States scored higher than Asian students, but not higher than Latin American students. Students' knowledge of the library collection and layout were improved 21.3%; however, undergraduate students' knowledge increased 13% more than that of graduate students.
Jesse R Quarrels and Steven E. Newman
A study was conducted to determine the effects of pine bark grind size and pine bark levels on the activity of two growth regulators on poinsettia Two bark grinds (≤ 6 mm and >10 mm) were used with four media combinations within each grind: vermiculite:bark:peat moss at 2:0:3, 2:1:2, 2:2:1, and 2:3:0 (by volume). Two growth regulators, paclobutrazol and uniconazole, were applied at 0, 0.125, and 0.250 mg/15 cm container in 250 ml water. Two poinsettia cultivars, `Freedom' and `Gutbier V-14 Glory', were planted September 2, 1993, pinched September 16, and growth regulators applied September 30. There were five single plant replications for each treatment. Stem length and bract area were effected by bark grind, bark level, growth regulator, and growth regulator rate. Plants treated with uniconazole had the shortest stems and the least bract area. Plants grown in the smaller grind and at higher bark levels were less effected. Plants treated with paclobutrazol had longer stems than those treated with uniconazole.
D. Clay Collins and Steven E. Newman
The Leaf Wetness Data Logger (LWL) and accompanying Logbook software were designed by Spectrum Technologies Inc. as a low-maintenance tool to aid in disease prediction and spray scheduling for outdoor field-grown crops. The LWL mimics leaf surface moisture represented as a value between 0 (dry) and 15 (wet). We explored an expanded use of the LWL to large-scale commercial greenhouses for the purpose of humidity control and disease prevention. Data were collected over 15 days in a commercial hydroponic tomato production greenhouse and repeated. Results indicated that leaf wetness, as determined by the LWL, increased during irrigation periods, with cumulative effects dependent on daily irrigation requirements and climate. Irrigation was controlled by the climate control computer in response to cumulative radiation intensity. By analyzing leaf wetness in correlation with climatic conditions, more adequate irrigation scheduling may be implemented, reducing the risk of disease spread and infection.