Pericarp browning, weight loss, and the associated quality deterioration are the unsolved postharvest problems of lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn.). Freshly harvested fruits (`Brewster') were stored ± plastic wrap (99% and 84% relative humidity, RH, respectively) and ± panicle at 5°C for 18 days to simulate commercial handling scenarios. There were no significant losses in pericarp color (L*, hue angle, chroma value), total soluble solids, and total sugars from initial values for wrapped fruits. Wrapped lychees were 100% marketable, compared to 17% for unwrapped fruits. The former retained higher weight, moisture content and total titratable acidity (TTA, pulp), and lower pulp pH. Colletotrichum sp., Cladosporium sp., and Alternaria sp. caused decay in 56% of unwrapped fruits, whereas wrapped fruits were free of decay. Fruits with panicles had significantly higher weight loss (3%) than clipped fruits for both wrapped and unwrapped fruits. Pulp TTA tended to decrease and pH to increase more in fruits with panicle. Postharvest quality of lychee fruits was significantly extended by removing the panicle and maintaining nearly saturated RH during handling and storage.
T. Vilasachandran and Steven A. Sargent
Steven A. Sargent and Jeffrey K. Brecht
Carambolas (Averrhoa carambola L., cv. Arkin) ware harvested at colorbreak (CB) and light green (LG) ripeness stages, commercially packed and cooled. The next day the fruit were treated as: Control (ungassed): CB, LG; Ethylene pretreatment (ETH) @100ppm: LC for 1, 2 or 3 days at 20°C or 25°. After pretreatment the fruit were stored at 5°. After 1, 2, 3, 4 weeks, 10 fruit from each treatment ware removed from storage and placed at 20°. Fruit color and decay were rated daily until 80% of the fruit in each treatment reached the yellow ripeness stage, at which time external color, total soluble solids (TSS), pH and total titratable acidity (TTA) were determined. Carambolas harvested at the LG stage can be ripened to good quality with ETH pretreatment. For two weeks storage at 5°, 2 days ETH are necessary at 20° or 25° to initiate ripening. For three weeks storage, 3 days ETH are required at 20°, and 2 or 3 days ETH are required at 25°. Fruit stored four weeks were of fair quality. LG with slower ripening initiation developed chilling injury during storage; the fastest initiation had the best color but the shortest marketing life. Fruit harvested CB had slightly higher TSS than ETH-treated LG but pH and TTA were similar.
Fernando Maul, Steven A. Sargent, Elizabeth A. Baldwin and Charles Sims
`Agriset-761' and `CPT-5' tomato fruits were harvested at green stage and subsequently exposed to a postharvest exogenous ethylene-air mixture (100 ppm C2H4 at 20°C). Tomatoes with visual symptoms of ripening (breaker stage = <10% red coloration) were removed from ethylene treatment after 1, 3, and 5 days and were transferred to 20°C and 85% RH. At “table-ripe” stage (full red coloration and 4-mm fruit deformation after 5 email@example.comN), whole fruit samples were analyzed for difference/discrimination sensory evaluations, aroma volatile profiles, and chemical composition. Flavor of fruits gassed for 1 day was rated significantly different than that of fruits gassed for 3 or 5 days (n = 25 panelists) for both cultivars. Several panelists noted the perception of “rancid” and “metallic” tastes, and “lingering” aftertaste in fruits gassed for 5 days. Chemical composition assays showed that flavor differences could be partially due to a significant increase in pH values between fruits gassed for 1 and 5 days (4.23 and 4.34, respectively for `Agriset-761') and a significant decrease in titratable acidity (0.91% and 0.73%, respectively, for `Agriset-761'; 1.04% and 0.86%, respectively, for `CPT-5'). No significant differences in soluble solids content or total sugars were found in any treatments for either cultivar. `Agriset-761' showed significant increases in the concentrations of acetone, hexanal, 2+3 methylbutanol, and a decrease in 2-isobutylthiazole, whereas, `CPT-5' fruits showed significant increases in hexanal, 2+3 methylbutanol, trans-2-heptenal, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, 2-isobutylthiazole, β-ionone, geranylacetone, and a decrease is ethanol concentration. In both cultivars, these significant differences in important aroma volatile compounds could be of enormous relevance in the perception of off-flavor/off-odors.
Jeffrey K. Brecht, Steven A. Sargent and L. A. Risse
Snap beans were room cooled (RC) or forced-air cooled (FA) in a 4.5°C commercial cold storage room, or hydrocooled (HC) in a commercial flume-type unit with 4°C water containing 175 ppm NaOCl. The beans were packed in wirebound wooden crates (WC) or waxed corrugated fiberboard cartons (FC) before (RC, FA) or after (HC) precooking and stored one week at 10°C before evaluation. Ascorbic acid, chlorophyll and fiber contents did not differ among treatments, while moisture content and per cent unshrivelled beans were lowest in FA and highest in HC, and lower in WC than in FC containers. HC reduced development of mechanical damage symptoms (browning) and decay compared to RC and FA. The former effect was attributable to the presence of NaOCl rather than leaching or increased cooling rate in HC. HC beans packed in FC had the highest per cent sound beans and lowest per cent beans showing mechanical damage symptoms of all the treatment combinations tested.
Michael T. Masarirambi, Jeffrey K. Brecht and Steven A. Sargent
Mature green fruit of `Agriset 761', `Colonial', `Sunny' and `Sunbeam' tomatoes were exposed to 100 ppm ethylene at 20, 25, 30, 35, or 40°C around 95% relative humidity (RH) for 24, 48, or 72 hours, then transferred to air at 20°C and 95% RH for ripening. There were few differences in ripening behavior in tomatoes exposed to ethylene at high temperatures (>30°C) for 24 hours compared to those treated at lower temperatures. However, increasing the duration of ethylene treatment at 35 or 40°C to 48 or 72 hours inhibited subsequent red color development, but prior exposure to ethylene at 30°C stimulated red color development. Ethylene production was inhibited after 48 or 72 hours at 40°C, but was stimulated by exposure to lower temperatures in the order shown: 35 > 30 > 25. During ripening, conversion of ACC to ethylene increased in fruit exposed to ethylene at 20 or 25°C but did not change in fruit from 30 or 35°C. ACC oxidase activity was lowest after exposure to 40°C. Untreated fruit ripened slowly and nonuniformly compared to those previously treated with 100 ppm ethylene. Increasing the ethylene treatment concentration to 1000 ppm did not alter the responses to high temperatures described above.
Muharrem Ergun, Steven A. Sargent and Donald J. Huber
Grape tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. `Santa') harvested at light-red (>90% color) and full-red stages were treated with 1 μL·L–1 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) for 24 hours at 20 °C and stored at 20 °C. After 1 day of storage, fruit harvested at light-red stage treated with 1-MCP had a 56% lower respiration rate than untreated fruit. By day 7, respiration rates of the two treatments had converged at about 2 mL·kg–1·h–1. Ethylene production of light-red stage tomatoes treated with 1-MPC was 24% lower than untreated during storage, with rates converging by day 11. For fruit harvested full-red, 1-MCP had similar effects on respiration and ethylene production, although convergence occurred earlier, by day 5. Subsequent tests were conducted only with fruit harvested at full-red stage, since fruit harvested at the light-red stage had lower soluble solids content (4.3%) than fruit harvested at the full-red stage (5.5%). Several combinations of 1-MCP concentrations and exposure times were applied at 20 °C: 1 μL·L–1 for 24 h, 5 μL·L–1 for 6 or 12 h, 25 μL·L–1 for 6 or 12 h, and 50 μL·L–1 for 6 or 12 h; following the respective pretreatment fruits were stored at 20 °C. 1-MCP pretreatment extended marketable life by 1 d, irrespective of pretreatment regime, where untreated and pretreated fruit remained marketable (<15% of fruit soft, decayed and/or shriveled) for 6 and 7 d, respectively. However, 1-MCP did not affect whole fruit firmness, epidermal color, internal color, soluble solids content (6.5%), total titratable acidity (0.64%), or pH (4.3). In a third test simulating commercial handling procedures, full-red harvested tomatoes were treated with 1 μL·L–1 1-MCP for 24 h at either 13 or 20 °C, stored for 4 d at 13 °C, and then transferred to 20 °C. Under these conditions, marketable life for untreated and 1-MCP-treated tomatoes was 7 and 8 d, respectively.
Eunkyung Lee, Steven A. Sargent and Donald J. Huber
Roma tomatoes (`Sunoma') were hand-harvested at the mature-green color stage and treated with 100 μL·L-1 ethylene for 60 h at 20 °C and 90% RH. Tomatoes at breaker ripeness stage (<10% red coloration) were sorted by weight (about 100 g) and half of the fruits were treated with 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP; 1 μL·L-1 for 24 h at 22 °C). After 1-MCP treatment, individual fruits were subjected to double impacts over the marked locular surface with force equivalent to a 40-cm height drop using a pendulum impactor. In non-1-MCP treated fruit, impacts increased the maximum respiration rate by 27% (to 39.1 mL·kg-1 per h) and ethylene production by 24% (to 5.5 μL·kg-1 per h). Treatment with 1-MCP decreased relative production of both CO2 (56%) and ethylene (54%) over non-1-MCP treated fruit, while the ripening period (as measured by softening and color development) was extended 2.5 times, to about 8 d. Fruits treated with 1-MCP had increased TTA (about 40%; 0.58% citric acid equivalent), decreased pH (5%), and no difference in soluble solids content (3.7 °Brix); double impacts did not affect these values. Double impacts accelerated the onset of polygalacturonase (PG) activity by about 100% (to 99.8 mol·kg-1 per min*10-5 D-galacturonic acid) at day 6 over non-impacted control fruit. 1-MCP treatment delayed the onset of increased PG activity by 10 d over non-1-MCP treated fruit. Although 1-MCP alleviated the impact-induced increase in PG activity, PG activity recovered to rates similar to those of non-1-MCP treated fruit during the final 4 d of ripening.
Eunkyung Lee, Steven A. Sargent and Donald J. Huber
Roma tomatoes (‘BHN 467’) were hand-harvested at mature-green color stage and treated with ethylene (100 μL·L−1 at 20 °C and 90% relative humidity) until reaching breaker (<10% red), pink (30%–60% red), or light-red ripeness stage (60%–90% red). Individual fruit at each ripeness stage were subjected to double impacts over the locule using a pendulum-impact device with a force equivalent to two 40-cm drops, followed by ripening at 20 °C. Fruit exhibited most noticeable increases in respiration and ethylene production within 1 hour and 1 day after impact, respectively. After 24 hours, respiration rates increased 40%–60% regardless of ripeness stage, while ethylene production in impacted breaker-stage fruit increased 3-fold (to 6.7 μL·kg−1·h−1). Fruit impacted at breaker stage softened 2 days earlier compared with non-impacted breaker fruit. Fruit impacted at all ripeness stages had higher electrolyte leakage and polygalacturonase (PG) activity during ripening than non-impacted fruit. After 6 days, electrolyte leakage in fruit impacted at light-red ripeness stage was 23% higher than non-impacted fruit; PG activity in breaker fruit increased 40% at 10 days over non-impacted fruit. No changes were observed for soluble solids content, total titratable acidity, pH, or sugar/acid ratio from impacts, independent of ripeness stage.
Jiwon Jeong, Donald J. Huber and Steven A. Sargent
Ethylene is integrally involved in the ripening of climacteric fruit. The ability to prevent ethylene action, or manipulate fruit sensitivity to ethylene, would provide a powerful means of extending postharvest storage life of these fruit, particularly for those that ripen rapidly and/or that are not tolerant of low-temperature storage. In this study, 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), an inhibitor of ethylene action, was used to investigate ripening, respiration, and ethylene production in avocado fruit. `Monroe' avocados were treated with 1-MCP (Ethylbloc®) for 24 h at 20 °C. The fruit were subsequently stored at 13 or 20 °C. Some fruit were exposed to 100 ppm ethylene at 13 and 20 °C before or after MCP treatment. As evaluated by flesh firmness, respiration rate, and ethylene evolution, 1-MCP completely inhibited the ripening of avocado fruit stored at 13 and 20 °C and 85% relative humidity. Ethylene evolution and respiration rates were dramatically depressed, greater than 95% and 52%, respectively, by 1-MCP. Whereas firmness of control fruit decreased from over 100 N to 10 N in as few as 7 days, fruit treated with 1-MCP remained firm (>45 N) for periods of up to 3 weeks at 13 °C. Treatment of avocado fruit with 100 ppm ethylene at 20 °C for 12 h did not overcome the influence of MCP treatment. Similarly, treatment with ethylene before MCP exposure did not circumvent the effects of the cyclic olefin on ripening. Current studies are addressing the effects of MCP concentration and exposure time on avocado ripening.
Steven A. Sargent, Jeffrey K. Brecht and Judith J. Zoellner
Internal bruising (IB) caused by handling impacts results in disruption of normal ripening in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) locular gel. It was selected as an injury indicator to investigate the effect of drop height (O, 10, 20, 30 cm) onto an unpadded surface and number of impacts (one or two) for three tomato cultivars. For mature-green (MG) tomatoes, significant incidence of IB (5% to 45%) was found in all cultivars for single drops on opposite sides of fruits from 20 cm; two drops on the same location from 20 cm caused 20% to 30% IB. Breaker-stage (BR) tomatoes were more sensitive to impacts than MG. Single drops from 10 cm on opposite sides of BR fruits caused 15% to 73% IB, depending on cultivar. Two drops on a single location from 10 cm caused 50% to 68% IB. `Sunny' was less susceptible to IB than `Solar Set' or `Cobia' (formerly NVH-4459).