`Anjou' pears (Pyrus communis L.) were placed in controlled-atmosphere (CA) storage immediately after harvest (<24 hours) or after a 10-day delay in refrigerated storage, and held there for 9 months at 1C. Oxygen in all atmospheres was 1.5% and CO2 was at either 1% or 3%. Atmospheres in the flow-through system were computer-controlled at ±0.1%. After removal from CA storage, pears were evaluated immediately and after ripening at 21C for 8 days. Pears stored in 3% CO2 were firmer, greener, and displayed less scald, internal breakdown, and stem-end decay than pears stored in 1% CO2. In addition, no internal discoloration of `Anjou' pears was evident when held with 3% CO2. `Anjou' pears held in 3%. CO2 retained the ability to ripen after long-term storage. A 10-day delay in atmosphere establishment had little or no influence on the long-term keeping quality or ripening ability of `Anjou' pears.
Frank J. Peryesa and Stephen R Drake
Fruit growers and shippers have suggested that excessive rates of boron (B) in foliar nutrient sprays may reduce quality of stored apples. Foliar B sprays were applied by handgun in mid-July to bearing apple trees (Malus domestica Borkh. cv. Starking) at rates of 0, 11.3,22.6 g B/tree. Fruits of uniform size (220 g) were analyzed for B content at harvest and for quality indices at harvest, after 10 days ripening postharvest, after 3 months refrigerated air storage, and after 8 days ripening poststorage. Whole fruit B concentration was directly proportional to B application rate. At all sampling times fruit firmness, soluble solids, titratable acidity, and internal and external color parameters were independent of whole fruit B concentration. Fruit disorders were unrelated to treatment except for internal breakdown after 8 months refrigerated air storage, which was positively related to whole fruit B concentration. Increases in fruit B were relatively greater in the core tissue, suggesting that some of the applied B entered the fruit through the tree vascular system.
Stephen R. Drake, Fenton E. Larsen and S.S. Higgins
Influences of rootstock on the quality of `Granny Smith' and `Greenspur' apples (Malus domestica Borkh.) were evaluated over an extended harvest period and after cold storage. Apples from trees on M.26 rootstock had the higher firmness, soluble solids concentration (SSC), and Ca content, but poorer external color (red blush) and a higher percentage of solar injury than fruit from trees on seedling or MM.111 rootstock. External greenness was best on apples from MM.111 rootstock. `Granny Smith' apples had higher firmness, soluble solids, acids, and carbohydrate contents, and less scald but poorer external greenness than `Green spur' apples. `Granny Smith' or `Greenspur' apples from M.26 rootstock appeared to mature earlier than those on MM.111.
James D. Hansen, Stephen R. Drake, Harold R. Moffitt, Dennis J. Albano and Millie L. Heidt
A quarantine treatment was developed against codling moth (Cydia pomonella L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) for the sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) cultivars ('Garnet,' `Brooks,' `Tulare,' `Lapins,' and `Sweetheart') exported to Japan. Specific procedures were required to demonstrate treatment efficacy. Dose-mortality responses were measured for each cultivar at regularly incremented concentrations of methyl bromide for 2 hours at 43 °F (6 °C) compared to the dose-mortality curve of an approved cultivar under the same conditions. Based on the overlap of confidence limits, there were no significant differences between new and approved cultivars in group comparisons. In a confirmation test of efficacy, fumigation with methyl bromide at 0.064 oz/ft3 (64 g·m-3) for 2 hours at 43 °F resulted in complete mortality for all codling moth larvae in the treated cultivars. By convention, fumigation at this or the following concentrations [0.048 oz/ft3 (48 g·m-3) for 2 h at 54 to 63 °F (12 to 17 °C); 0.040 oz/ft3 (40 g·m-3) for 2 h at 63 to 72 °F (17 to 22 °C); 0.032 oz/ft3 (32 g·m-3) for 2 h at 72 °F (22 °C) or above] were considered as an efficacious quarantine treatment against the codling moth in sweet cherries. Except for `Brooks,' fumigation did not significantly influence fruit firmness, soluble solids, or titratable acids. Reduction in fruit and stem quality was more associated with temperature than with methyl bromide concentration. `Tulare,' `Lapins,' and `Sweetheart' could be fumigated with minimal change in fruit quality.
Don C. Elfving, Stephen R. Drake, A. Nathan Reed and Dwayne B. Visser
A sprayable formulation of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP; AgroFresh, Spring House, PA) was applied to ‘Scarletspur Delicious’ and ‘Cameo’ apples in the orchard 1 to 3 weeks before harvest and compared in different postharvest studies with the commercial postharvest 1-MCP fruit treatment (SmartFresh; AgroFresh) and with aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG; ReTain; Valent BioSciences, Walnut Creek, CA). Treated apples were held in air storage for 50 to 60 d or in controlled-atmosphere storage for 120 to 125 or 215 to 225 d. With increased concentration, sprayable 1-MCP treatments were effective at controlling flesh firmness loss and internal ethylene concentration (IEC) up to 225 d of storage as well as during a 7-d poststorage shelf life simulation at room temperature. Application closer to harvest improved the effect of sprayable 1-MCP on control of flesh firmness loss and IEC. Concentrations of sprayable 1-MCP above 90 mg a.i./L produced similar fruit effects to 1-MCP. Treatment with 1-MCP showed little effect on soluble solids concentration (SSC), titratable acidity (TA), or skin or flesh color in ‘Delicious’ but slightly increased SSC and TA in ‘Cameo’ apples. AVG applied 4 weeks before commercial harvest controlled IEC nearly as well as either sprayable 1-MCP or 1-MCP during storage, but AVG-treated fruit allowed to ripen for 7 d at room temperature after storage lost much more flesh firmness regardless of storage regime. Sprayable 1-MCP also reduced starch hydrolysis, IEC and fruit drop at harvest. Sprayable 1-MCP may offer new opportunities for effective preharvest management of apple fruit condition, storability, and poststorage fruit quality.
James D. Hansen, Harold R. Moffitt, Dennis J. Albano, Millie L. Heidt, Stephen R. Drake and Jacqueline L. Robertson
Confirmatory tests were performed on a two-component quarantine treatment against the codling moth (Cydia pomonella L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) for seven apple [Malus sylvestris (L.) var. domestica (Borkh.) Mansf.] cultivars ('Delicious,' `Golden Delicious,' `Braeburn,' `Fuji,' `Gala,' `Jonagold,' and `Granny Smith') intended for export to Japan and Korea. Treatment consists of a 55-day cold storage at 40 °F (2.2 °C) or below, followed by a 2-hour methyl bromide fumigation (0.056 oz/ft3 or 56 g·m-3) at 50 °F (10 °C). No eggs or larvae survived this treatment. Comparison tests were conducted on all cultivars to demonstrate no difference in insect responses between a previously accepted cultivar and proposed cultivars. Concentration-mortality responses were determined for each of the components and no statistical differences were found in the regression slopes of pest mortality with controlling variable (either cold exposure or fumigation) among all cultivars. Descriptive mathematical models, developed for the effects of cold storage on egg mortality and for methyl bromide fumigation on larvae mortality, were sigmoid curve equations.
D. Michael Glenn, Gary J. Puterka, Stephen R. Drake, Thomas R. Unruh, Allen L. Knight, Pedro Baherle, Ernesto Prado and Tara A. Baugher
Particle film technology is a developing pest control system for tree fruit production systems. Trials were performed in Santiago, Chile, and York Springs, Pa., Wenatchee and Yakima, Wash., and Kearneysville, W. Va., to evaluate the effect of particle treatments on apple [Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill. var. domestica (Borkh) Manst.] leaf physiology, fruit yield, and fruit quality. Leaf carbon assimilation was increased and canopy temperatures were reduced by particle treatments in seven of the eight trials. Yield and/or fruit weight was increased by the particle treatments in seven of the eight trials. In Santiago and Kearneysville, a* values of the fruit surface were more positive in all trials although a* values were not increased in Wenatchee and Yakima. Results indicate that particle film technology is an effective tool in reducing heat stress in apple trees that may result in increased yield potential and quality.