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  • Author or Editor: Stephen C. Weller x
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Use of in-row cover crops for weed management in first-year vineyards was investigated in two studies. In the first study, rye (Secale cereal L. 'Wheeler') was fall-planted, overwintered, then managed by three methods before vine planting. Rye was either herbicide-desiccated with glyphosate and left on the surface as a mulch, mowed, or incorporated into the soil (cultivated). Weed density and growth of grapevines (Vitis spp.) were evaluated. Herbicide desiccation was superior to the other methods for weed suppression, with weed densities 3 to 8 times lower than for mowed or cultivated plots. Vine growth was similar among treatments, but the trend was for more shoot growth with lower weed density. In a second study, four cover crops, rye, wheat (Triticum aestivum L. 'Cardinal'), oats (Avena sativa L. 'Ogle'), and hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth), were compared. Wheat and rye were fall- and spring-planted, and oats and vetch were spring-planted, then desiccated with herbicides (glyphosate or sethoxydim) after vine planting and compared to weed-free and weedy control plots for weed suppression and grapevine growth. Cover crops provided 27% to 95% reduction in weed biomass compared to weedy control plots. Total vine dry mass was highest in weed-free control plots, was reduced 54% to 77% in the cover crop plots, and was reduced 81% in the weedy control. Fall-planted wheat and rye and spring-planted rye plots produced the highest vine dry mass among cover crop treatments. Spring-planted rye provided the best combination of weed suppression and vine growth. Chemical names used: N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine (glyphosate isopropylamine salt); 2-[l-(ethoxyimino)butyl]5-[2-(ethylthio)propyl]-3-hydroxy-2-cyclohexen-1-one (sethoxydim).

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Abstract

Although foliar applied glyphosate to Easter lily (Lilium longiflorum Thunb.) caused little damage at concentrations up to 540 x 10-4m (2.2 kg/ha), direct exposure of roots to glyphosate at concentrations as low as 2.7 x 10-4m (0.1 kg/ha) resulted in death. Glyphosate application after simulated flooding of the greenhouse floor indicated that plant injury would not occur if glyphosate is applied as recommended.

Open Access

Abstract

During the Aprtl–October season, leaves of 7-year-old peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch cv. Norman] were serially dipped in a N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine (giyphosate) solution (10,000 ppm or 20,000 ppm) each month over a 2-year period. Fewer trees died the following year when giyphosate was applied as a leaf dip before July 1 than when applications were made after July 1; all applications resulted in tree injury.

Open Access

An in vitro shoot regeneration procedure was developed for native spearmint (Mentha spicata L.) using internodal explants. Shoot regeneration from internodes was evaluated on Murashige and Skoog (MS) media supplemented with individual cytokinins thidiazuron (TDZ), benzylaminopurine (BA), kinetin (KT), or zeatin (ZT) or various pair wise combinations of these. The highest regeneration was achieved by the second internode on a medium containing MS basal salts, B5 vitamins, 10% coconut water, 1.0 mg·L–1 TDZ, 2.5 mg·L–1 ZT, and solidified with 0.2% phytagel. Unlike previous protocols this medium does not need sub culturing and produces elongated shoots in 4 weeks, rather than 6 weeks. Maximum number of shoots (36 per explant after 4 weeks) was observed when internodes from 2-week-old stock plants were used as explant source. The shoots were removed and roots were initiated on medium containing MS basal salts, 0.4 mg·L–1 thiamine-HCL, 100 mg·L–1 myo-inositol, 7.5 g·L–1 agar and 0.01 mg·L–1 ∝-napthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and then plants were transferred to the greenhouse 2 weeks after root initiation, where 100% of the plantlets developed into healthy plants.

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Trichoderma virens (Gliocladium virens) (Miller et al.) von Arx is a soilborne fungus with a high degree of rhizosphere competence that produces a potent herbicidal compound, viridiol, and therefore has potential for development as a bioherbicide. We investigated the possibility of using composted chicken manure (CCM) as a medium for the production and deployment of T. virens. We chose CCM since the safe disposal of chicken manure presents significant logistic problems, and composted manures, as well as serving as an organic source of nitrogen, have been shown to support the activity of other biological control agents. Composted chicken manure supported the growth of T. virens and the rapid production of high concentrations of viridiol, but only when it was supplemented with large quantities of nutrients, including sucrose (16% w/w). Viridiol was not stable when stored in CCM, with a rapid decline in viridiol concentrations observed in T. virens-inoculated CCM cultures. Clearly, a cheaper alternative to sucrose is required as a carbon source for T. virens in CCM or similar media, and effective storage methods would need to be found for a T. virens-based bioherbicide product. Importantly, CCM did not need to be sterilized to support the growth of T. virens and its concomitant production of viridiol, suggesting that on-farm production systems may be feasible. Trichoderma virens-colonized CCM reduced the emergence and seedling growth of redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L.) in a greenhouse experiment and dramatically reduced the emergence of a mixed community of broadleaf weeds in the field.

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Vegetable amaranth (Amaranthus sp.), a leafy vegetable crop consumed around the world, is actively promoted as a source of essential micronutrients to at-risk populations. Such promotion makes micronutrient content essential to the underlying value of this crop. However, the extent to which micronutrient content varies by effect of genotype is not clear, leaving breeders uninformed on how to prioritize micronutrient contents as the criteria for selection among other performance parameters. A total of 32 entries across seven Amaranthus species were field-grown and analyzed for Fe, Mg, Ca, Zn, yield, height, and canopy spread comprising 20 entries at New Jersey in 2013; 12 entries at Arusha, Tanzania, in 2014; and 20 entries at New Jersey in 2015. The genotype effect was significant in all trials for Fe, Mg, Ca, Zn, total yield, marketable yield, height, and canopy spread. The Fe content range was above and below the breeding target of 4.2 mg/100 g Fe in all environments except for New Jersey 2015, where all entries were found to accumulate in levels below the target. All entries in each of the environments contained levels of Ca and Mg above breeding targets, 300 mg/100 g Ca and 90 mg/100 g Mg. None of the entries in any environment met the Zn breeding target of 4.5 mg/100 g Zn.

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