There is currently little information regarding the impact of soil moisture on morphology and physiology of English lavender (Lavandula angustifolia). Therefore, our goal was to determine the impact of substrate volumetric water content (θ = volume of water ÷ volume of substrate) on this plant. We grew ‘Munstead’ and ‘Hidcote’ lavender at one of four θ: 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, or 0.4 L·L−1 for 54 days using a capacitance sensor-automated irrigation system. Plant height, greatest width, inflorescence number, and total leaf number and area of both cultivars increased with increasing θ. Shoot fresh and dry weight of lavender irrigated at θ ≥ 0.3 L·L−1 was generally twice that of those grown at the lowest θ (0.1 L·L−1). Leaf-level instantaneous net photosynthetic rate (AN) and transpiration (E) of ‘Munstead’ decreased with decreasing θ. This reduction in AN was likely due to the concurrent reduction in stomatal conductance (gS) at lower θ. Similar reductions in AN, E, and gS of ‘Hidcote’ were observed at lower θ (0.2 and 0.3 L·L−1) 5 weeks after the initiation of the study, but not at the end of the study probably due to acclimation of ‘Hidcote’ to mild drought.
Gaura lindheimeri Engelm. & Gray ‘Siskiyou Pink’ (gaura) and Phlox paniculata L. ‘David’ (garden phlox) were grown for 5 weeks in substrates irrigated at volumetric water contents (Θ) of 0.10, 0.15, 0.20, 0.25, 0.30, 0.35, 0.40, or 0.45 m3·m−3 using a capacitance sensor-controlled irrigation system. Volumetric water contents of the substrate measured by the capacitance sensors controlling irrigation were correlated with measurements with a separate handheld meter (r2 = 0.83) and with volumetric water content set points throughout the study (r2 > 0.98). Only 3.8 (at an irrigation set point of 0.10 m3·m−3) to 53 L (0.45 m3·m−3) of water was used to irrigate gaura and phlox and 0 to 7.74 L of this water leached out of the substrates. Significant leaching occurred only at Θ set points of 0.40, or 0.45 m3·m−3. Gaura had shorter and fewer branches and reduced dry weight when grown at lower volumetric water contents, but plants irrigated at set points above 0.25 m3·m−3 were large enough to be marketable. Gaura may be grown with capacitance sensor-automated irrigation using water efficiently and minimizing or eliminating leachate and thus nonpoint source pollution.
Organic and conventional greenhouse growers in Maine were surveyed to determine the research needs of growers who may produce organic ornamental bedding plants. Organic growers were also asked to identify their greatest motivator to determine whether they feel that there is a greater market for organically grown ornamental plants. The greatest percentage (75%) of organic growers indicated that they choose to grow plants organically because “it's the right thing to do.” The second greatest percentage (36%) of organic growers choose organic production techniques for ornamental plants because they grow food crops organically and consider it convenient to use only one production technique. A relatively small number of organic growers (7%) considered the market for organic ornamental plants to be a strong motivator for growing organically. Organic growers were asked to select production issues that pose the greatest challenge for them from a list of common production problems. They considered insect and disease management and organic fertility, substrate, and pH management to be their greatest problems. Conventional growers primarily avoid organic production techniques because they consider organic fertilization or organic insect management to be too big of a challenge. Because organic and conventional growers consider insect and fertility or substrate management to be challenges facing organic growers, these topics should be top priorities for future research on organic greenhouse production.
Many ornamental plant growers water excessively to reduce the risk of drought stress. Scheduling irrigation in greenhouses is challenging because there is little quantitative information about ornamental plant water requirements and how water use changes when plants are grown in varying greenhouse environmental conditions. Models to estimate the daily water use (DWU) of greenhouse crops may provide a useful tool to conserve irrigation water. Our objective was to develop a model to predict DWU based on plant age and easily acquirable environmental data. Two petunia (Petunia ×hybrida) cultivars, Single Dreams Pink and Prostrate Easy Wave Pink, were grown in different sized containers (diameter = 10, 12.5, and 15 cm) to quantify their DWU for 6 weeks. The substrate water content (θ, v/v) was maintained at 0.40 m3·m−3 using an automated irrigation system with capacitance soil moisture sensors. Every irrigation event was recorded by a data logger, and this information was used to calculate the DWU of the plants. On overcast days early in the experiment, plants used only 4.8 to 13.8 mL·d−1. The maximum DWU of ‘Single Dreams Pink’ was 63, 96, and 109 mL·d−1 in 10-, 12.5-, and 15-cm containers, respectively. Late in the experiment, ‘Prostrate Easy Wave Pink’ petunia used more water than ‘Single Dreams Pink’ because of their more vigorous growth habit. DWU was modeled as a function of days after planting (DAP), daily light integral (DLI), vapor pressure deficit (VPD), temperature, container size, and interactions between these factors and DAP (R2 = 0.93 and 0.91 for ‘Single Dreams Pink’ and ‘Prostrate Easy Wave Pink’, respectively). Days after planting and container size were the most important factors affecting DWU and are indicative of plant size. Daily light integral was the most important environmental factor affecting DWU. These models, describing the DWU as a function of the DAP and environmental conditions, may be used as guidelines for accurately watering petunias in greenhouses and may improve irrigation scheduling.
French marigold (Tagetes patula L. `Boy Orange') was grown in a peat-based growing medium containing different rates (0, 15, 20, 30, 42, or 50 g·L–1) of polyethylene glycol 8000 (PEG-8000) to determine if PEG-8000 would reduce seedling height. Only 28% to 55% of seedlings treated with 62, 72, or 83 g·L–1 of PEG-8000 survived, and these treatments would be commercially unacceptable. Marigolds treated with the remaining concentrations of PEG-8000 had shorter hypocotyls, and were up to 38% shorter than nontreated controls at harvest. Marigold cotyledon water (ψw), osmotic (ψs), and turgor (ψp) potentials were significantly reduced by PEG-8000, and ψp was close to zero for all PEG-treated seedlings 18 days after seeding. Whole-plant net photosynthesis, whole-plant dark respiration, and net photosynthesis/leaf area ratios were reduced by PEG-8000, while specific respiration of seedlings treated with PEG-8000 increased. Marigolds treated with concentrations greater than 30 g·L–1 of PEG-8000 had net photosynthesis rates that were close to zero. Fourteen days after transplanting, PEG-treated marigolds were still shorter than nontreated seedlings and they flowered up to 5 days later. Concentrations of PEG from 15 to 30 g·L–1 reduced elongation of marigold seedlings without negatively affecting germination, survival, or plant quality. It appears that marigold seedlings were shorter because of reduced leaf ψp and reductions in net photosynthesis.
The growth of three english ivy cultivars in ebb-and-flow subirrigation systems was examined under three photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) treatments (low, medium, or high, corresponding to an average daily PPF of 3.2, 5.4, or 8.5 mol·m–2·d–1, respectively) and four fertilizer concentrations (0, 100, 200, or 300 mg·L–1 N) geared toward production of acclimatized foliage plants. Marketable quality english ivy can be subirrigated with 100 mg·L–1 N. Although 8.5 mol.m–2.d–1 produced the maximum shoot dry weight (SDW), good quality plants also were produced under 5.4 mol·m–2·d–1. `Gold Child', `Gold Dust', and `Gold Heart' english ivy produced with low fertility and low light may be better acclimatized and show superior performance in interior environments. Under light levels lower than 8.5 mol·m–2·d–1, `Gold Heart' had less variegation (12% or 21% for ivy grown under 3.2 or 5.4 mol·m–2·d–1, respectively). `Gold Dust' and `Gold Child' had 65% and 22% variegated leaf area, respectively, when grown under 5.4 mol·m–2·d–1PPF. Under 5.4 mol·m–2·d–1PPF, `Gold Dust' retains attractive foliage with overall perception of increased lighter-green coloration.
In commercial greenhouses, fan flower ‘Whirlwind Blue’ (Scaevola aemula R. Br.) plants are sensitive to phosphorus applications in the range typically applied to other floricultural crops. To quantify this response, fan flower plants were grown in Hoagland solutions containing 0, 20, 40, 60, or 80 mg·L−1 P. Plants fertilized with either the highest (80 mg·L−1) or lowest (0 mg·L−1) P concentrations had significantly shorter stems and smaller shoot dry weights and leaf areas than plants fertilized with 20 to 60 mg·L−1 P. Low or high P concentrations negatively impacted flower number; fan flower fertilized with 0, 60, or 80 mg·L−1 P had fewer flowering branches and flowers compared with plants fertilized with 20 to 40 mg·L−1 P. Plants receiving no P had longer roots than those receiving any P and had greater root dry weights than plants receiving all other P concentrations except 20 mg·L−1. Foliar nutrient analysis indicated that although P treatments significantly impacted foliar concentrations of at least some essential macro- and micronutrients, all essential elements were within or near recommended ranges except P. Foliar P concentrations exceeded 1 mg·g−1 in fan flower that received even the lowest concentration of supplemental P, but leaf chlorosis was only observed in plants grown in 60 to 80 mg·L−1 P. As a result of rapid accumulation of P in fan flower foliage and subsequent reductions in flower number and shoot elongation, fan flower should be fertilized with no more than 20 mg·L−1 P.
We propagated manchurian lilac (Syringa pubescens subsp. patula ‘Miss Kim’) vegetatively from stem cuttings using overhead mist, submist, and combination propagation systems. Cuttings were collected when terminal buds were already set, after the period of tender growth that is optimal for lilac propagation. Net photosynthesis (Pn) was recorded to assess whether differences in rooting could be attributed to differences in photosynthetic activity of cuttings within each system. The propagation environment differed significantly among systems, with vapor pressure deficit (VPD) substantially greater for submist systems than for overhead mist or combination systems, and root zones warmer in submist and combination systems than in overhead mist. Pn of cuttings did not differ among systems and was initially low, but increased about when the first root primordia were visible. Rooting percentages were 90% among cuttings in the combination system, with cuttings in overhead mist and submist rooting at lower, but similar, percentages (68% and 62%, respectively). Cuttings in the combination and submist systems produced significantly more and longer roots than those in the overhead mist system, and retained nearly all of their leaves. Overall, the use of systems that provide intermittent mist to the basal end of each cutting was effective for propagating manchurian lilac. Our results demonstrate that cuttings in submist alone experience a much greater VPD than those in overhead mist, but may nonetheless root at comparable percentages and produce superior measures of root system quality. Combination systems show promise for rooting of species like manchurian lilac, because cuttings rooted at high percentages and with consistent root system quality, despite having been collected after the optimal spring period for lilac propagation.
In 2008, we administered a survey to participants at four venues in Maine to determine: 1) the degree of interest in organically, sustainably, and locally grown plants; 2) whether respondents would pay more for these plants compared with conventional plants; and 3) which demographic groups expressed the greatest interest in organically, sustainably, or locally grown plants. Respondents were highly interested in organic and sustainable vegetable/herb and ornamental plants; median interest was 9 on a scale of 1 to 10 where 1 indicated low interest and 10 indicated high interest. They were less interested in locally grown plants; respondents’ median interest in local plants was 6 on the same scale. Survey respondents stated that they would pay 15% more (vegetable/herbs) or 10% more (ornamentals) for organic, sustainable, or local plants than they would for conventionally grown plants. Several demographic factors indicated that respondents were either willing to spend more money on nonconventional plants, or were at least more interested in these kinds of plants. Income and education were positively correlated with the amount of money respondents stated they would spend on nonconventional plants. Younger participants were more interested than older participants in sustainable and organic plants, but they were not willing to pay more for these plants than older participants. Similarly, women were more interested than men in nonconventional plants, but were not likely to spend more on them than men. This survey indicated that there is a strong market for organic and sustainable vegetable, herb, and ornamental plants. Growers could potentially charge 10% to 15% more for these plants than for conventionally grown plants. They would likely receive the highest premium for organic and sustainable plants from individuals with higher incomes and education levels.
The novel propagation system submist, which applies water to the bases of cuttings rather than overhead, is a promising alternative. We developed and tested a commercial-scale submist system to make this propagation system more accessible to commercial propagators. Five species, including blue star flower (Amsonia tabernaemontana), faassen nepeta (Nepeta ×faassenii ‘Six Hills Giant’), panicle hydrangea (Hydrangea paniculata ‘Grandiflora’), sweetgale (Myrica gale), and sweetfern (Comptonia peregrina), were propagated from cuttings in commercial-scale submist and overhead mist systems. Blue star flower and faassen nepeta cuttings had greater root length, root rating, and root number with the submist system. Panicle hydrangea cuttings had more roots in submist, but longer roots in overhead mist. There were no differences in rooting between the systems for sweetgale and sweetfern cuttings. The comparable or superior rooting of these five species in a submist system compared with traditional overhead mist systems is evidence that submist is a viable alternative propagation system. Water use in submist systems was 98% less than that for overhead mist systems.