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  • Author or Editor: Stanley Young x
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A market window for onion occurs when f.o.b. prices are above grower break-even price for a period of 4 to 6 weeks. Market windows were calculated to occur from late June to early August and from early October through December for northwest Texas onions. Five-year average prices ranged from $6.25 to $7.40 (1990–94), and a breakeven price of $5.38/50-lb sack was calculated from an analysis of total costs of production and marketing and historic yields. Ongoing research and grower demonstrations with advanced breeding lines, commercial cultivars, and selections from yellow, white, and red cultivars have defined certain cultivars that display superior attributes and mature within the market window. Superior cultivars adapted to the first market window include XPH-87N60, `Sunre 1445', `Sunre 1462', `Yula', `Spano', `Cimarron', `Riviera', `Utopia', and `Alabaster'. Superior cultivars adapted to the second market window include `Sweet Perfection', `Sterling', `Vega', `Bravo', `Capri', `Vaquero', `El Charro', `Quest', `Shasta', and `Vision'. `Vaquero', `Sunre 1462', `Sunre 1445', `El Charro', and `Viceroy' have potential for short-term storage for October to December markets.

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The efficiency of volatile formaldehyde removal was assessed in 86 species of plants representing five general classes (ferns, woody foliage plants, herbaceous foliage plants, Korean native plants, and herbs). Phytoremediation potential was assessed by exposing the plants to gaseous formaldehyde (2.0 μL·L−1) in airtight chambers (1.0 m3) constructed of inert materials and measuring the rate of removal. Osmunda japonica, Selaginella tamariscina, Davallia mariesii, Polypodium formosanum, Psidium guajava, Lavandula spp., Pteris dispar, Pteris multifida, and Pelargonium spp. were the most effective species tested, removing more than 1.87 μg·m−3·cm−2 over 5 h. Ferns had the highest formaldehyde removal efficiency of the classes of plants tested with O. japonica the most effective of the 86 species (i.e., 6.64 μg·m−3·cm−2 leaf area over 5 h). The most effective species in individual classes were: ferns—Osmunda japonica, Selaginella tamariscina, and Davallia mariesii; woody foliage plants—Psidium guajava, Rhapis excels, and Zamia pumila; herbaceous foliage plants—Chlorophytum bichetii, Dieffenbachia ‘Marianne’, Tillandsia cyanea, and Anthurium andraeanum; Korean native plants—Nandina domestica; and herbs—Lavandula spp., Pelargonium spp., and Rosmarinus officinalis. The species were separated into three general groups based on their formaldehyde removal efficiency: excellent (greater than 1.2 μg·m−3 formaldehyde per cm2 of leaf area over 5 h), intermediate (1.2 or less to 0.6), and poor (less than 0.6). Species classified as excellent are considered viable phytoremediation candidates for homes and offices where volatile formaldehyde is a concern.

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