Kiwifruit has a short storage life and encounters severe disorders during maintenance mainly as a result of its climacteric behavior. The role of calcium and heat treatment in delaying degenerative processes during storage has been revealed. This study investigated the effects of hot water combined with calcium (Ca) dips on the quality of kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa cv. Hayward). Whole fruits were treated with hot water for 5, 10, and 15 minutes at 47 °C, therefore dipped in CaCl2 solution (2% w/v) and stored at 0 °C for up to 120 days. During storage, fruit were sampled at 0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 days for postharvest quality evaluation. Postharvest evaluations included chromatic parameters (L*, a*, b*, hue, and chroma), firmness, and physiological parameters [phenolic content and polyphenol oxidase (PPO)]. Heating combined with Ca dips significantly reduced PPO activity. The results showed that mild heat treatments in combination with CaCl2 maintained chromatic parameters for kiwifruits compared with control and hot water or CaCl2 treatments solely. In addition, the levels of total phenolic compounds remained significantly higher for hot water combined with CaCl2-treated fruit as compared with control or untreated fruits. According to the results, hot water treatments had a significant firming effect, whereas CaCl2 dips solely had less effect on chromatic parameters. However, the influence of hot water treatments was dependent on application time with (treatment that showed significant results) showing significant improved kiwifruit postharvest qualities. Overall, with this simple and non-contaminant technology, after long-term storage, quality of kiwifruit could be even greater than in recently harvested fruits.
Shirin Shahkoomahally and Asghar Ramezanian
Shirin Shahkoomahally, Jose X. Chaparro, Thomas G. Beckman, and Ali Sarkhosh
The rootstock is an essential element for orchard management, influencing scion growth, nutrient concentration, and fruit quality. Seasonal variations in leaf nutrients of ‘UFSun’ grafted on five different rootstocks (‘Flordaguard’, ‘Barton’, ‘MP-29’, ‘P-22’, and ‘Okinawa’) were investigated during the 2017–18 growing season in Citra, FL. There was no significant variation in the macronutrient concentrations (N, P, K, Mg, Ca, and S) among different rootstocks; however, ‘UFSun’ on ‘Okinawa’ and ‘Flordaguard’ showed greater concentrations of Ca, K, and Mg concentration than other rootstocks. In contrast, ‘Flordaguard’ showed less potential to accumulate P as compared with other rootstocks. The Ca concentration was lowest in ‘MP-29’ and ‘Barton’ in April and June. The concentration of macronutrients (N, P, K, Mg, Ca, and S) in leaves was greater in April and October than in December and June. With respect to rootstocks, macronutrients in December and June were the highest in ‘Okinawa’ and the lowest in ‘Barton’. In April, the lowest concentration of macronutrient was recorded in ‘Barton’, whereas the highest concentrations were found in ‘P-22’, ‘Okinawa’, and ‘Flordaguard’. The highest leaf micronutrient concentrations were found in ‘MP-29’ and ‘Barton’, and the lowest in ‘Okinawa’ and ‘Flordaguard’ in June and October. For all rootstocks, concentrations of micronutrients increased between leaf growth in April and senescence in October. The micronutrient concentrations of leaves decreased during December. The widest dynamic changes during the vegetative cycle were found on ‘P-22’. Seasonal trends were more consistent for micronutrients than for macronutrients.