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Shiow Y. Wang and Miklos Faust

The changes of membrane lipids in apple (Malus domestics Borkh. cv. Delicious) auxillary and terminal buds from August to April were determined. The predominant lipids were monogalactosyl diglyceride (MGDG), digalactosyl diglyceride (DGDG), phosphatidylcholine (PC), and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). An increase in membrane polar lipids was associated with budbreak and bud growth from August to April. Linolenic acid was the predominant fatty acid in MGDG, DGDG, and PC, while linoleic acid was predominant in PE. Phosphatidylglycerol (PG) and phosphatidylinositol (PI) contained a high amount of palmitic acid. The ratio of (18:2 + 18:3) to 18:1 fatty acids in galactolipids in apple buds increased from August to April. ß-Sitosterol and sitosteryl ester were the predominant sterols in apple buds. An increase in sitosterol, a decrease in sitosteryl ester, and a decline in the ratio of free sterols to phospholipids occurred during budbreak in spring. A decrease in sitosterol was associated with bud expansion in spring.

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Shiow Y. Wang and Miklos Faust

Composition changes in galactolipids, phospholipids, and sterols in apple shoots (Malus domestica Borkh. cv. Red Delicious) from August to April were determined. The predominant fatty acids in the membrane lipids of apple shoots were palmitic acid (C16:0), linoleic acid (C18:2), and linolenic acid (C18:3). The major galactolipid components in apple shoots were monogalactosyl diglyceride (MGDG) and digalactosyl diglyceride (DGDG). The amount of MGDG and DGDG increased from autumn to spring. Galactolipids contained highly unsaturated fatty adds, mainly linoleic (18:2) and linolenic (18:3) acid. The major individual phospholipids were phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethaeolamine (PE). β -Sitosterol and sitosteryl ester were the predominant sterols. The phloem contained higher amounts of galactolipids, phospholipids, and sterols than did the xylem tissue. There was a significant increase in the content of galactolipids and phospholipids and onsaturation of their fatty acids during cold acclimation. A decrease in the ratio of free sterols to phospholipids also occurred in apple shoots toward cold winter months. Composition changes in galactolipids, phospholipids, and sterols that were associated with growth cessation, defoliation and cold acclimation from fall to winter, were mostly reversed following deacclimation in spring.

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Shiow Y. Wang and Hongjun Jiao

The effect of blackberries (Rubus sp.) genotypes on antioxidant activities against superoxide radicals (O2 ), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), hydroxyl radicals (OH), and singlet oxygen (O,), was evaluated. The results were expressed as percent inhibition of active oxygen species production in the presence of fruit juice. The active oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) value referred to the net protection in the presence of fruit juice, and was expressed as micromoles of α-tocopherol, ascorbate, α-tocopherol, and β-carotene equivalents per 10 g of fresh weight for O2 , H2O2, OH, and O2, respectively. Among the different cultivars, juice of Hull' blackberry had the highest oxygen species, superoxide radicals (O2 ), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), hydroxyl radicals (OH), and singlet oxygen (O2,) scavenging capacity. Different antioxidants have their functional scavenging capacity against active oxygen species. There were interesting and marked differences among the different antioxidants in their abilities to inhibit the different active oxygen species. β-carotene had by far the highest scavenging activity against O2 but had absolutely no effect on H2O2. Ascorbic acid was the best at inhibiting H2O2 free radical activity. For OH, there was a wide range of scavenging capacities with α-tocopherol the highest and ascorbic acid the lowest. Glutathione had higher O2 scavenging capacity compared to the other antioxidants.

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Shiow Y. Wang and Miklos Faust

The ability of low and high temperatures to overcome endo- and paradormancy along with the possible mechanisms involved in these treatments for breaking apple (Malus domestica Borkh. `Anna') bud dormancy were studied. All these treatments induced budbreak in paradormant (in July) and endodormant (in October) buds. Cold and heat treatments increased ascorbic acid, the reduced the form of glutathione (GSH), total glutathione, total non-protein thiol and non-glutathione thiol, whereas dehydroascorbic acid and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) decreased. The treatments also increased the ascorbic acid: dehydroascorbate and GSH: GSSG ratios and the activity of ascorbate-free radical reductase, ascorbate peroxidase, dehydroascorbate reductase, ascorbate oxidase, and glutathione reductase in the buds. These results indicate that budbreak induced by cold and heat treatments is associated with the removal of free radicals through activated peroxide-scavenging systems.

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Shiow Y. Wang and Miklos Faust

Polyamine, putrescine, spermidine, and spermine contents were determined during endodormancy in the buds of low-chilling-requiring `Anna' apples (Malus domestics Borkh.). Putrescine, spermidine, and spermine contents increased greatly in buds when their chilling requirement was satisfied. Polyamine biosynthetic inhibitors α -difluoromethylarginine (DFMA) or α -difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) reduced bud break and bud growth in concert with decreased polyamine titers. DFMO or DFMA did not inhibit bud break when it was applied to buds after they received the full chilling requirement. DFMO was more inhibitory than DFMA. The polyamine requirement was much higher for bud growth and bud development than during differentiation and bud break.

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Shiow Y. Wang and Miklos Faust

The glycolipids, phospholipids, and sterols were determined in normal and watercore-affected apple (Malus domestica Borkh. cv. Delicious). Fruit with watercore contained higher amounts of glycolipids, phospholipids, and sterols. The ratios of unsaturated to saturated fatty acids and (18:3) to (18:1 + 18:2) were lower in watercore-affected tissue than in normal tissue. The ratio of free sterols to phospholipids was higher, whereas the ratio of phosphatidylcholine to phosphatidylethanolamine was lower in watercore-affected apple. Membrane lipids were altered in watercore-affected fruit.

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Shiow Y. Wang and Miklos Faust

Ethylene biosynthesis and polyamine content were determined in normal and watercore-affected apple (Malus domestics Borkh. cv. Delicious). Fruit with watercore produced more ethylene and contained higher amounts of putrescine (PUT), spermidine (SPD), 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), and 1-(malonylamino) cyclo-propane-1-carboxylic acid (MACC). The activities of ACC synthase and ethylene-forming enzyme (EFE) in watercore-affected fruit were also higher than in normal fruit. The EFE activity in severely affected flesh was inhibited, resulting in ACC accumulation and low ethylene production. S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) was maintained at a steady-state level even when C2 H4 and polyamides were actively synthesized in normal and affected fruit.

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Shiow Y. Wang and Miklos Faust

The ability of low and high temperatures and S-containing compounds to overcome endo- and paradormancy along with the possible mechanisms involved in these treatments for breaking `Anna' apple bud dormancy were studied. All three treatments induced budbreak in paradormant (July) and endodormant (October) buds. Cold, heat, and allyl disulfide increased ascorbic acid, the reduced form of glutathione (GSH), total glutathione, total nonprotein thiol (NPSH), and nonglutathione thiol (RSH), whereas dehydroascorbic acid and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) decreased. The treatments also increased the ratios of ascorbic acid: dehydroascorbate and GSH: GSSG and the activities of ascorbate free-radical reductase (AFR, EC 1.6.5.4), ascorbate peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.11), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR, EC 1.8.5.1), ascorbate oxidase (AAO, EC 1.10.3.3), and glutathione reductase (GR, EC 1.6.4.2) in the buds. These results indicate that budbreak induced by cold, heat, and allyl disulfide is associated with the removal of free radicals through activated peroxide-scavenging systems.

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Shiow Y. Wang and Miklos Faust

The activity of ascorbic acid oxidase (AAO) was studied in apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) buds during dormancy and thidiazuron-induced budbreak. In dormant buds, activity of AAO was low compared with buds that were treated with thidiazuron and had resumed growth. An increase in AAO activity began at the time of metabolic transition from dormancy to budbreak. The highest level of activity was reached 10 days after thidiazuron induction during the expansion growth phase. In vitro AAO activity of apple bud extract was increased by addition of Cu (CuSO) and inhibited by Cu-chelating agents, diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC), sodium azide (NaN), and 8-hydroxyquinoiine (8-OH-Q). In vivo treatment of apple buds with Cu-chelating agents inhibited AAO activity and bud growth but not budbreak. Chemical name used: N- phenyl -N' -1,2,3-thidiazol-5-ylurea (thidiazuron).

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Shiow Y. Wang and Hsin-Shan Lin

Fruit and leaves from different cultivars of thornless blackberry (Rubus sp.), red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.), black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis L.), and strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa D.) plants were analyzed for total antioxidant capacity (oxygen radical absorbance capacity, ORAC) and total phenolic content. In addition, fruit were analyzed for total anthocyanin content. Compared to fruit, leaves were found to have higher ORAC values. In fruit, ORAC values ranged from 7.8 to 33.7 μmol Trolox equivalents (TE)/g of fresh berries, while in leaves, ORAC values ranged from 20.8 to 45.6 μmol TE/g of fresh leaves. Fruit harvested at different stages of maturity were analyzed in blackberries, raspberries, and strawberries. Blackberries and strawberries had their highest ORAC values during the green stages, while raspberries generally had the highest ORAC activity at the ripe stage (with exception of cv. Jewel, a black raspberry). Total anthocyanin content increased with maturity for all three fruit. There was a linear correlation existed between total phenolic content and ORAC activity for fruit and leaves. For ripe berries, there was also a linear relationship between ORAC values and anthocyanin content. Of the ripe fruit and leaves tested, raspberry plants appeared to be the richest source for antioxidants.