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  • Author or Editor: Shinnosuke Kusaba x
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The effects on fruit set of adding forchlorfenuron (CPPU) to media in which pollen grains were suspended and used for spray pollination was investigated in ‘Hosui’ japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia). The percentages of fruit set after spray pollination were lower than those after hand pollination; however, media with 2 or 10 mg·L−1 CPPU used for spray pollination resulted in greater percentages of fruit set than media without CPPU. The media with CPPU also resulted in higher levels of pollen germination compared with the medium without CPPU; however, the number of seeds per fruit with CPPU treatment tended to be almost the same or less than for fruit without CPPU treatment. From these results, the higher levels of fruit set by CPPU might not be due to the high germination rate of the pollen grains but due to the induction of partial parthenocarpic properties. The medium with 10 mg·L−1 CPPU gave the highest levels of fruit set, but the fruit had abnormally thickened and enlarged calyxes, and the fruit shape tended to be deformed at ≈21 days after flowering. In addition, all of the harvested fruit were calyx-perpetual fruit in which the calyx remains until harvest time. Fruit treated with 2 mg·L−1 CPPU also yielded calyx-perpetual fruit with high frequency, but the fruit had normal calyxes and the fruit shape tended to be more normal. Thus, we conducted experiments focusing on the medium containing 2 mg·L−1 CPPU. Although the results were variable from year to year, more than 70% of hand-pollinated flowers set fruit during the 3-year study; this level of fruit production is sufficient for practical use. Thus, spray pollination using a medium with 2 mg·L−1 CPPU is an acceptable method for pollinating ‘Hosui’ japanese pear.

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Flower development of the lateral buds was accelerated in Japanese pear [Pyrus pyrifolia (Burm.) Nak.] when vertical shoots were bent at a 45° angle in late June. The indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) concentration in lateral buds on vertical (control) shoots increased in mid-July, while remaining nearly constant in bent shoots. The abscisic acid (ABA) concentration of buds in bent shoots rose between 4 July and 15 Aug., whereas control shoots exhibited an increase in concentration followed by a decline. Gibberellin4+7 (GA4+7) concentration was high on 16 June, and then declined by 4 July, with the decline being greatest in bent shoots. Gibberellin4+7 concentration was higher in the buds on vertical shoots than in those on bent shoots for much of July. The concentrations of zeatin-type cytokinins (CKs) in lateral buds were higher in bent shoots than in vertical shoots. Bending of pear shoots may weaken competition between buds and other organs through altering hormone levels in lateral buds, resulting in acceleration of flower development.

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