Cultivars of the Japanese pear [Pyrus pyrifolia (Burm.) Nakai] have variable degrees of self-incompatibility (SI) and can be classified into at least three groups: strong, intermediate, or weak SI; as shown by the extent of self-pollen tube growth in the style, and the percentage of fruit set following self-pollination. Following self-pollination, the elongation of pollen tubes in the detached styles of `Kosui' and `Kikusui' became increasingly suppressed from 4 days before anthesis (–4 DAA) to 2 days after anthesis (2 DAA). Tube growth of `Kosui' was more suppressed than that of `Kikusui' during this period. In `Osa-Nijisseiki', however, the rate of tube growth did not vary with stage of stylar development, from –8 to 2 DAA. Pollen tubes elongated much better after cross-pollination than after self-pollination at all stages tested, and the extent of the elongation increased as the styles matured. The concentration of total S-protein (sum of two S-proteins per buffer-soluble protein) increased with stylar development, but the rate of increase varied with the cultivar. The rate was significantly greater in the strongly self-incompatible `Kosui' than in the moderately self-incompatible `Kikusui', and was slowest in the weakly self-incompatible `Osa-Nijisseiki' at all developmental stages. During stylar maturation, the concentration of S4-protein, which is common in all cultivars, was highest in `Kosui', followed by `Kikusui' and `Osa-Nijisseiki'. Thus, the cultivar differences in SI expression in the Japanese pear are determined about –4 DAA and appear to be regulated, in part, by the concentration of S-proteins produced in the style.
Shao-Ling Zhang and Shin Hiratsuka
Shin Hiratsuka, Yuka Yokoyama, Hiroshi Nishimura, Takayuki Miyazaki, and Kazuyoshi Nada
To clarify why fruit bagging reduces sugar content at harvest, we investigated its effect on carbon dioxide assimilation by Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu) fruit through photosynthesis and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC; enzyme code 188.8.131.52). Seasonal changes in gross photosynthesis ranged from 70 to 400 μmol·d−2·h−1 O2 with a peak at 99 days after full bloom (DAFB) when the assimilation rate of fruit was comparable to that of leaves. However, a peak showing net photosynthesis appeared at 112 DAFB because of high fruit respiration. When fruit were bagged at 85 DAFB, the net photosynthetic peak disappeared, perhaps as a result of the decline in chlorophyll content in the rind. Sugar and organic acid content in the bagged fruit were 0.3% and 0.16% less, respectively, than controls at the mature stage (204 DAFB). PEPC activity in the rind was much higher than in leaves on a protein basis; it increased between 92 and 112 DAFB and showed a peak of 72 units. The PEPC activity peak was also 90% of control after fruit bagging. Thus, just before their color development, mandarin fruit assimilate CO2 actively through photosynthesis and PEPC. However, these activities are inhibited by bagging, likely resulting in lower sugar content at harvest. The concomitant activation of PEPC and photosynthesis between 99 and 126 DAFB indicates that CO2 fixed by PEPC might be used for photosynthesis in mandarin fruit, because photosynthesis in several fruit such as apple (Malus pumila) and pea (Pisum sativum) is considered to have an intermediate status among C3, non-autotrophic tissue, and C4/CAM photosynthesis.