European plum fruit (Prunus domestica) are normally blue-black to dark purple. However, some genotypes remain green/yellow after ripening. We hypothesized that in such genotypes anthocyanin biosynthesis is genetically disturbed. To examine this hypothesis, six european plum genotypes with diverse fruit colors were investigated for the expression pattern of several anthocyanin biosynthetic genes (ABGs)—e.g., phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, chalcone synthase (CHS), dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR), anthocyanin synthase (ANS), and UDP-glucose:flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase 1 and 2 (UFGT 1 and 2). Expression profiles indicated that ABGs, especially Pd-CHS and UFGT 2, were significantly downregulated in the green/yellow fruit compared with the dark-purple fruit. Furthermore, the quantification of total polyphenols and individual flavonoid compounds showed substantial differences between the off-colored and the purple genotype. To further examine the contribution of each of the ABGs in color development, the open reading frame (ORP) of Pd-CHS, Pd-DFR, Pd-ANS, and Pd-UFGT 2 was ectopically expressed in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). The characterization of transgenic plants showed that the petals of plants expressing Pd-CHS were darker in color and had higher anthocyanin content than control or even other transgenic types, suggesting the significant contribution of CHS in determining anthocyanin production levels and hence fruit coloration. The results of this study provides better understanding of color development in european plum, which can be rewarding in developing european plum cultivars with desired colors through classical or modern breeding tools.
Dineshkumar Selvaraj, Sherif Sherif, Mohd Sabri Pak Dek, Gopinadhan Paliyath, Islam El-Sharkawy and Jayasankar Subramanian
M.A. Sherif, P.A. Loretan, A.A. Trotman, J.Y. Lu and L.C. Garner
Nutrient technique (NFT) and deep water culture (DWC) hydroponic systems were used to grow sweetpotao to study the effect of four nutrient solution treatments on: translocation of nutrients and plant and microbial population growth in split-root channels. 'TU-155'cuttings (15 cm) were prerooted for 30 days in sand in 4 cm CPVC pipes 46 cm in length. A modified half Hoagland (MHH) solution was supplied ad libidum. After 30 days, plants were removed and the roots of each plant were cleaned and split evenly between two channels (15 cm deep by 15 cm wide by 1.2 m long). four plants per channel. Nutrient solution treatments (replicated) were: MHH-MHH: MHH-Air, MHH-deionized water (DIW); and monovalent (Mono) - divalent (Dival) anions and cations. Solution samples were continuously collected at 7-day intervals for microbial population profiling. Plants were harvested after growing for 120 days in a greenhouse. Storage roots, when produced, were similar in nutritive components. However, no storage roots were produced in Air or Mono channels and only a few in DIW. Fresh and dry weights for storage roots and foliage were highest in MHH-MHH in both NFT and DWC in repeated experiments. Population counts indicated that nutrient solution composition influenced the size of the microbial population in NFT. Population counts were highest in Dival channels. The microbial population counts (4.20-7.49 cfu/mL) were. relatively high in both NFT and DWC systems.