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  • Author or Editor: Sheldon C. Furutani x
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Abstract

Poor germination in Carica papaya L. was partly due to the absence of embryos in about 20% of the seeds. Final germination and the rate of seedling emergence were improved by seed separation with 1.097 g·em−3 sucrose solution and soaking with 1.0 M potassium nitrate (KNO3) or 600 ppm gibberellic acid (GA3). Final germination was 87.8% for the KNO3 treatment and 80.5% for GA3. Seedlings from KNO3 treatments were normal, whereas GA3 caused excessive elongation of stems.

Open Access

Abstract

Field-grown ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe cv. Chinese) were treated with 3 weekly foliar sprays of GA3 at 0, 1.44, and 2.88 mM; ethephon at 0, 3.46, and 6.92 mM; or daminozide at 0, 3.13, and 6.26 mM to evaluate their effects on flowering, shoot emergence, and rhizome yield. GA3 inhibited flowering and shoot emergence, while ethephon and daminozide had no effect on flowering but promoted shoot emergence. Rhizome yields were increased with daminozide and decreased with GA3 and ethephon. Chemical names used: gibberellic acid (GA3); (2-chloroethyl)phosphonic acid (ethephon); butanedioic acid mono(2,2-dimethylhydrazide) (daminozide).

Open Access

Abstract

A fast and accurate method for determining the percentage of moisture content of macadamia (Macadamia integrifolia Maiden and Betche) nuts using a household microwave oven is described. Drying time was reduced from 48 hr for the forced-draft oven method to 16 min. No statistical difference in percent moisture values was detected between microwave drying and forced-draft drying.

Open Access

Abstract

The blue jade vine (BJV) (Strongylodon macrobotrys Gray.) is a popular ornamental in the tropics because of its spectacular floral display. In Hawaii, the BJV is a perennial and flowers sequentially from October to January. The flowers usually abscise 1 to 2 days after anthesis. We evaluated effects of (2-chloroethyl)phosphonic acid (ethephon) and aminooxyacetic acid (AOA), an inhibitor of ethylene synthesis, on BJV flower abscission.

Open Access

Abstract

Celery (Apium graveolens L.) seeds germinated at 10°C for 14 days produced shorter and more uniform radicles (0– mm) than seeds germinated for 8 days at 24° (0–10 mm). Removal of seed leachates improved the germination of celery seeds in the light. Celery seeds germinated at 10° prior to sowing emerged faster, and produced more uniform plants than those not pregermihated, and were not thermodormant when incubated at 32°.

Open Access

Chinese rose beetle (CRB) (Adoretus sinicus Burmeister) preferential feeding based on leaf carbohydrate content was determined using `Hawaiian Wonder' snap bean (Phaseohs vulgaris L.) plants exposed to 0% ,40%, or 80% shade for 2 days. Plants exposed to 0% shade before CRBs fed had 8.5% leaf area consumed compared with 2.8% and 3.6% for 40% and 80% shade, respectively. Leaves exposed to 0% shade had a higher carbohydrate content than leaves exposed to 40% and 80% shade. Darkening the apical and subtending leaf with aluminum foil for 1 day before CRBs fed shifted CRB feeding from heavy feeding on the apical leaf and light feeding on the subtending leaves to a reversed feeding pattern-light feeding on the apical leaf and heavy feeding on the subtending leaves. Three snap bean cultivars grown under similar environmental conditions were compared to `Hawaiian Wonder' using a unifoliate split-leaf technique. Cultivars with a high endogenous carbohydrate content in their leaves had a higher percentage of leaf area consumed by CRBs than cultivars with low endogenous carbohydrates. This report suggests that high endogenous carbohydrate content in leaves stimulates CRB feeding.

Free access

Abstract

Spray applications of NAA or NAA ethylester at 1000 ppm acid equivalent (A.E.) reduced axillary bud number by 30% and 21%, and weight by 73% and 52%, respectively, on pinched potted chrysanthemums, Chrysanthemum ×morifolium Ramat. ‘Mountain Snow’ and ‘Mountain Peak’. Diameter of floral sprays and vegetative heights also were reduced with increasing concentrations. Flower number was not affected by the treatments. NAA treatments caused leaf epinasty, but NAA ethylester treatments did not. Chemical names used: 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA).

Open Access

Abstract

Preplant soak application of ethephon at 750 ppm in combination with a 51°C water soak for 10 min to ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe ‘Chinese’) rhizomes increased shoot number by 122% after 16 wk and rhizome weight by 38% at harvest, compared to 21° water-soaked rhizomes. The increase in rhizome weight was correlated with number of shoots per plant. Chemical names used: (2-chloroethyl)phosphonic acid (ethephon).

Open Access

Abstract

Leaves of ‘Mountain Snow’ chrysanthemums (Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat.), sprayed with 10 mm NAA or 10 mm NAAEE, exhibited severe epinasty after 24 hr, while leaves sprayed with 5 mm ethephon did not. Treatment with 100 μm AOA 24 hr before application reduced ethylene production rate of leaves, but not epinasty. Localized application of NAA to adaxial, abaxial, or both leaf surfaces resulted in similar amounts of leaf epinasty. Epinastic leaves had enlarged adaxial epidermal cells. Size of abaxial epidermal cells was unchanged. This study provides evidence that leaf epinasty of chrysanthemum following NAA application is not the result of auxin-induced ethylene production. Chemical names used: (aminooxy)acetic acid (AOA); 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA); 1-naphthaleneacetic acid ethyl ester (NAAEE); and (2-chloroethyl)phosphonic acid (ethephon).

Open Access