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  • Author or Editor: Shehbaz Singh x
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Bermudagrasses (Cynodon spp.) are the most preferred turfgrass species for athletic fields in the southern and transition zones of the United States. Developing and using bermudagrasses with superior traffic tolerance and surface playability under trafficked conditions benefits turfgrass managers, athletes, and sport organizations. A 2-year field study was conducted in Stillwater, OK, to quantify the genetic variability of traffic tolerance and surface playability from a population composed of two commercially available and 87 experimental interspecific hybrid bermudagrasses under fall simulated traffic stress. The experiment design was a randomized complete block design with three replications. Plots were subjected to 60 simulated cleat traffic events for 6 weeks in the fall of 2019 and 2020 using a Baldree traffic simulator. Bermudagrasses were evaluated for turfgrass quality (TQ), normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), fall percent green cover (FPGC), shear strength (SS), and surface hardness (SH) after 3 and 6 weeks of traffic. Spring green-up percent green cover (SGPGC) was evaluated in the spring of 2020 and 2021. Except for SH, significant entry effects were found for all parameters and reliability estimates were moderate to high (i 2 = 0.49 to 0.68) under simulated trafficked conditions. Experimental entries 17-4200-19X13, 17-4200-19X9, 17-4200-36X19, 17-5200-4X11, 18-7-2, 18-7-6, 18-8-2, 18-8-3, 18-8-7, 18-9-2, OSU1101, and OSU1664, and TifTuf® had excellent traffic tolerance. Entries 18-8-7, OSU1101, OSU1675, TifTuf®, and Tahoma 31® demonstrated high SS. There was a large group of entries that had consistent early spring green-up across both years, including Tilin#5, 18-9-8, OKC1221, OSU1257, OSU1318, OSU1337, OSU1406, OSU1439, OSU1651, OSU1675, Tahoma 31®, and TifTuf®. OSU1101 was the entry ranking in the top statistical grouping most often throughout the study. Findings illustrated the possibility of improving traffic tolerance and SS through breeding and using phenotypic selection could reliably select bermudagrass genotypes with improved traffic tolerance and SS in the transition zone.

Open Access

Postharvest losses of fresh produce constitute the biggest portion of the total food losses occurring in food chains globally. The main driver behind the postharvest losses of fresh fruits and vegetables is temperature abuse occurring mainly during transportation and storage. This is a particular problem for small-acreage producers, who frequently have limited access to postharvest handling resources like optimum refrigeration conditions. Passive modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) is a relatively inexpensive intervention that does not require specialized equipment and has demonstrated some potential for maintaining the quality and extending the shelf life of fresh produce stored in nonoptimum temperatures. Our objective was to determine the effect of passive MAP on the quality and storage life of spinach (Spinacia oleracea cv. Corvair) when stored in nonoptimum temperatures. Mature spinach leaves (≈320 g) were packaged in passive MAP bags, developed using the BreatheWay technology, and non-MAP produce bags and subsequently stored at 13 or 21 °C. Spinach physical and nutritional quality was evaluated throughout its storage life in terms of overall quality, water loss, leaf tenderness, surface color, chlorophyll content, electrolyte leakage, chlorophyll fluorescence, antioxidant capacity, total phenolic content, and vitamin C content. Spinach that was stored in MAP bags reached headspace equilibrium at ≈6% Ο2 and 11% CΟ2 at 13 °C and ≈4% Ο2 and 8% CΟ2 at 21 °C after 2 days of storage for both temperatures. The spinach stored in passive MAP at 13 or 21 °C demonstrated significantly higher overall quality during storage and 2 and 1 day longer storage life, respectively, when compared with the control. The spinach in passive MAP demonstrated a slower rate of yellowing and water loss during storage. The limiting factor for the spinach stored in MAP was decay due to condensation at 13 °C and yellowing at 21 °C. There were no statistical differences in the examined nutritional quality parameters between the spinach stored in MAP and produce bags. This study shows that passive MAP can be a valuable tool for reducing the food losses occurring in small-acreage fruit and vegetable operations that have limited access to cooling and refrigerated storage.

Open Access

Traffic injury caused by foot- or athlete-surface interaction is one of the most critical problems athletic field managers face in maintaining the surface playability and aesthetic quality of athletic fields. Bermudagrass (Cynodon spp.) is the most widely used turfgrass species on athletic fields in the transitional climatic zone. A 2-year field study was conducted to evaluate nine bermudagrass cultivars for their persistence and surface playability under simulated fall cleat traffic. The experiment was conducted in Stillwater, OK, on a natural loam soil. Treatments were arranged as a split-block design with three replications. Traffic was applied for 6 weeks in Fall 2019 and 2020 using a Baldree traffic simulator, which generated 10 traffic events per week; each traffic event resulted in 678 cleat marks/m2. ‘Bimini’ was generally found to be the most persistent grass under traffic for aesthetic properties, and ‘Astro’ and ‘Tifway’ were the least persistent. Surface playability was affected by simulated traffic stress as shear strength (SS) declined and surface hardness (SH) increased, over time. ‘Bimini’ had greater SS than ‘Astro’ and ‘OKC1131’ (Tahoma 31®) by 1.9 and 1.4 N·m, respectively. SS of ‘DT-1’ (TifTuf®) and Tahoma 31 and SH of ‘OKC1134’ (NorthBridge®) were least affected by simulated traffic stress. Overall, surface playability characteristics of NorthBridge, ‘Bimini’, ‘OKC1119’ (Latitude 36®), TifTuf, Tahoma 31, and ‘Riley Riley’s Super Sport’ (Celebration®) were least affected by traffic. Findings illustrate bermudagrass cultivars can vary in visual persistence and surface playability.

Open Access