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- Author or Editor: Sharad C. Phatak x
A sterile (nonflowering) mutant pepper plant (Capsicum sp.) with large, purplish-green, leathery leaves and purplish-green stems was observed during a hybridization program for ornamental peppers. Propagation of this mutant was investigated using cuttings rooted in the greenhouse and in vitro cultures. The most suitable treatment for rooting of cuttings involved the use of two-node cuttings, 2 to 4 mm in diameter, treated with Rootone and rooted in Promix inside a humidity chamber kept in 60% shade. With this treatment, 40% of the cuttings had rooted after 8 weeks. Two-node shoot tips callused when cultured in vitro in Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing 4.9 or 9.8 μm IBA or 8.8 μm BA, but 60% had rooted after 8 weeks in half-strength MS medium without growth regulators. Chemical names used: 1 H -indole butyric acid (IBA), N -(phenylmethyl)-1 H -purin-6-amine (BA).
Cantaloupe (Cucumis melo L., cv. Hiline) were planted following over-wintering cover crops. In replicated field trials, stand development for 7 different cover crops and their effects on incidence of weeds, insects, diseases, and nematodes was assessed. Effects of cover crops on yield and quality of cantaloupe were evaluated. Cover crops evaluated were rye, crimson clover, lentils, subterranean clover, `Vantage' vetch, mustard, a polyculture of all cover crops and control-fallow. No insecticides were applied and only two applications of fungicides were made. Fertilizer applications were significantly reduced. No differences among cover crops for any of pest nematodes were observed. Significant differences in populations of beneficial and pest insects were observed. Polyculture had the highest plant vigor rating. The highest marketable yield occurred following crimson clover.
The herbicide metribuzin is registered for use on tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). It is applied either preplant incorporated or postemergence. However, severe injury occurs when postemergence applications are made during low light conditions (1,2, 4, 5, 6). UGA 1113MT and UGA 1160MT are being released as sources of tolerance to metribuzin; both lines have exhibited excellent tolerance (no injury) to metribuzin applications (up to 16-times the recommended rate of 1.12 kg/ha) made during cloudy weather. Chemical name used: 4-amino-6-tert-butyl-3-(methylthio)-as-triazin-5(4-H)-one (metribuzin).
Seeds of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) and pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) were either germinated before planting, primed (immersed in an aerated solution of potassium phosphate and ammonium phosphate for 72 hours (tomato) or 120 hours (pepper) and dried), or left untreated (raw) and then planted with gel in loamy sand and sandy soils. There was little difference in response from the tomato seed treatments. In pepper, germinated seeds emerged much earlier and established heavier plants. Differences in emergence due to seed treatments generally were greater in loamy sand than in sandy soil.
Cucumbers (Cucumis sativus L.), ‘Bounty’ and ‘Premier’, were grown at 8 population densities ranging from 50,000 plants per ha (46 × 46 cm spacing) to 850,000 plants per ha (10 × 10 cm spacing). Sections of the field were harvested once-over on 2 sampling dates. Yields as dollars per ha and as tons per ha increased with increasing plant population at densities of 50,000 to 100,000 and 250,000 to 500,000 plants per ha. Over the common commerical populations, 100,000, 150,000, 200,000 and 250,000 plants per ha, yields did not increase as population increased. Delay in harvest for 4 days did not affect dollars per ha yield but doubled the tons per ha produced. Fruit sizing was slower in higher plant populations (250,000 to 850,000 plants per ha) than in the lower plant densities (50,000 to 200,000 plants per ha). The number of fruit per plant decreased with increasing plant population. Length to diameter ratios of ‘Premier’ were lower at the lowest plant population, 50,000 plants per ha. L:D ratios of ‘Bounty’ were unaffected by plant population. Varying plant populations did not affect the percent off-shape fruit, or fruit color (green quality and uniformity) of either cultivar.
Ethephon and chlorflurenol were applied to hybrid pickling cucumber Cucumis sativus L. cvs. Pioneer and Pickmore to study the use and effectiveness of the chemicals on promoting fruit yields and quality in a once-over harvest system. Ethephon was applied either at the first or the fourth true-leaf stage of growth. Chlorflurenol was applied at 0, 50 or 100 ppm when 6-8 female flowers reached anthesis. Dollar value per ha was increased by approximately 14% when ethephon or chlorflurenol was used alone. However, when these 2 growth regulators were used in combination, yields were increased by as much as 68% in ‘Pioneer’ and 40% in ‘Pickmore.’ Chlorflurenol significantly increased the number of fruit per plant and reduced the length to diameter ratio. Fruit shape and L:D ratio were significantly improved when ethephon was applied in the fourth true-leaf stage regardless of chlorflurenol usage. Chlorflurenol slightly reduced the fresh quality of ‘Pioneer’ but had no such effect on ‘Pickmore.’ Salt stock quality was improved slightly by chlorflurenol. To obtain best yield, fruit shape, fresh salt stock quality, ethephon should be applied twice, 1 week apart commencing at the fourth true-leaf stage, followed by a 50 to 100 ppm spray application of chlorflurenol when 6-8 female flowers have reached anthesis.