Vegetative annuals are increasing in popularity among greenhouse growers and consumers but little is known about their postharvest shelf life. Twenty-two cultivars from ten species of vegetative annuals were grown to marketability with optimum greenhouse culture. Plants were then subjected to one of three shipping durations (0, 1, or 2 days) in simulated shipping i.e., a growth chamber at 26.7 ± 0.3 °C, 0 μmol·m-2·s-1, and 50% relative humidity. The plants were then moved to simulated postharvest environment i.e., growth room at 21.1 ± 1.3 °C and 6 μmol·m-2·s-1 to evaluate shelf life. Flower number and plant quality rating were measured weekly in addition to observations of plant appearances. Some of the postharvest disorders noted on several species and cultivars were stem die back, leaf chlorosis, stem elongation, bud abortion, flower drop, and flower fading. The majority of the cultivars maintained their quality one-week postharvest although flower drop was common. After the first week of shelf life, decline in vegetative and reproductive tissues were noted in most plants. Cultivars from nine species: Argyranthemum frutescens (L.) Sch. Bip, Bracteantha bracteata (Vent.) Anderb. & Haegi, Calibrachoa hybrid Lave Lex, Diascia ×hybrida, Lantana camara L., Nemesia ×hybrida, Petunia ×hybrida, Sutera hybrida, and Sutera cordata showed decreased flower number and/or quality rating due to shipping duration, with increased shipping duration causing accelerated postharvest disorders. The only species unaffected by shipping duration was Angelonia angustifolia Benth.
Shannon E. Beach* and Terri W. Starman
Shannon E. Beach* and Terri W. Starman
Diascia ×hybrida (diascia) is a cool season vegetative annual produced in 6 weeks in an 11.4-cm pot under greenhouse production. Early experiments noted that during simulated shipping in a growth chamber at 26.7 ± 0.3 °C, 0 μmol·m-2·s-1 PPF and 50% RH, diascia flowers abscised. To test the effect of 1-MCP on retention of flowers during shipping, three hundred diascia plants were grown under temperature set points of 24°/18 °C day/night in a glass greenhouse. Three harvests of 42 plants each were made as plants became marketable i.e., open flowers on six racemes. The treatments were factorial with three shipping durations (0, 1, or 2 days) and two 1-MCP (1-Methylcyclopropene, Ethylboc, Floralife, Waterboro, S.C.) treatments (0 mg·L-1 and the commercially recommended application rate) and seven plants per treatment. Plants were boxed and sealed under 4-mL clear plastic tarps with duct tape and then treated with 1-MCP gas or water for 4 hours before moving to the growth room (19 °C, 10 μmol·m-2·s-1 PPF) for 2 weeks. They remained in the boxes for the duration of simulated shipping treatments. Flower number, racemes with open flowers and a quality rating were given when removed from the shipping boxes. For plants in the first and second harvests, 1-MCP significantly reduced flower and raceme abscission 1 week after shipping regardless of shipping duration; this was not seen in the third harvest. Two weeks post shipment there was no difference in flower numbers between 1-MCP treated and untreated plants. With two exceptions, no differences among measured variables occurred due to shipping duration.
Terri W. Starman, Shannon E. Beach, and Kristen L. Eixmann
Twenty-one cultivars from nine species of vegetative annuals were grown under optimum greenhouse production practices until maturity. At harvest, they were subjected to 0, 1, or 2 days of simulated shipping. After shipping, plants were rated for quality, and flower abscission was counted postship and weekly for 3 weeks in a simulated retail environment. There were few decreases in flower number and quality directly postship, but decline symptoms became evident as time lapsed in the postharvest environment. Flower abscission resulting from increased shipping duration occurred on ‘Sun Chimes Coral’ diascia (Diascia ×hybrida) and ‘Aromatica White’ nemesia (Nemesia ×hybrida). During the postharvest evaluation, ‘Dreamtime Copper’ bracteantha (Bracteantha bracteata), ‘Superbells Trailing Blue’ calibrachoa (Calibrachoa hybrid), ‘Aromatica White’ nemesia, and ‘Candy Floss Blue’ sutera (Sutera cordata) were the only cultivars to abscise all flowers (<0.4 flowers) by the end of the first week. Five cultivars still had flowers at termination of the experiment. Of these five, four were bracteantha cultivars including ‘Florabella White’, ‘Florabella Gold’, ‘Dreamtime Cream’, and ‘Sundaze Golden Yellow’, and ‘Cascadias Pink’ petunia. After 2 weeks postharvest, 12 of the 21 cultivars that were shipped 1 or 2 days did not have a high enough quality rating (<3.0 points) to be considered marketable. Each species in this study had one or two postharvest decline symptoms common to all cultivars of that species. However, cultivars within species also varied in their postharvest decline symptoms and longevity. More optimum environmental conditions, better care, and faster turnover in the retail market are needed to improve shelf life of vegetative annuals sold in containers.
Shannon E. Beach*, Terri W. Starman, and H. Brent Pemberton
Bracteantha bracteata (Vent.) Anderb. & Haegi (bracteantha) is a vegetative annual produced as a 12.7-cm potted plant in 6 weeks of greenhouse production. A dense leaf canopy produced with a conventional constant-feed fertilization regime (300 mg·L-1 20N-4.4P-16.6K) caused increased disease pressure and lower leaf chlorosis during greenhouse production. During shelf life, lower leaves of plants con-tinued to become chlorotic. The objective was to decrease leaf area and prevent lower leaf chlorosis without affecting harvest time, plant quality or shelf life of two cultivars of three series of bracteantha. The first experiment was to reduce the rate of fertilizer two weeks prior to harvest. Treatments were no fertility reduction (300 mg/liter), 50% reduction (150 mg/liter), and 100% reduction (0 mg·L-1). At harvest, plants were evaluated for shelf life in a growth room at 21.1 ± 1.3 °C and 6 μmol·m-2·s-1 PPF. Five cultivars in the 100% fertility reduction treatment had decreased height and/or width index at harvest and three cultivars maintained higher postharvest quality ratings compared to the other treatments. Separately, the effect of the duration of fertilization was evaluated by terminating fertilization at weekly intervals (0-6 weeks) throughout production. Ceasing fertilization two to three weeks prior to harvest produced plants with lower leaf area without affecting flower number. In another experiment, thidiazuron (TDZ) as a foliar spray at 0, 0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 mg·L-1 was applied to decrease lower leaf yellowing. SPAD-502 chlorophyll meter readings of lower leaves were increased with 0.1 mg·L-1 TDZ treatment compared to the control. Phytotoxic symptoms occurred on plants receiving higher TDZ rates.
Shannon E. Beach, Terri W. Starman, Kristen L. Eixmann, H. Brent Pemberton, and Kevin M. Heinz
Twenty-one cultivars of vegetative annuals were treated with 0%, 50%, or 100% of the production fertilization rate of 300 mg·L−1 N starting 2 weeks before and continuing until harvest. At harvest, plant width, flower number, and quality rating were measured. The plants were then placed in a simulated interior environment where flower number was counted and quality rating was assigned to each plant weekly for 3 weeks. Overall, 14% of the cultivars maintained a marketable quality (i.e., quality rating of ≥3.0 of 5) for 3 weeks, 43% for 2 weeks, 38% for 1 week, and one cultivar did not maintain quality during the postharvest evaluation. Reduced end-of-production fertilization rate (EPFR) resulted in higher quality ratings for at least one additional week of simulated shelf life for three cultivars, including ‘Dreamtime Copper’ bracteantha (Bracteantha bracteata), ‘Vanilla Sachet’ nemesia (Nemesia ×hybrida), and ‘Bridal Showers’ sutera (Sutera hybrida). ‘Comet White’ and ‘Sunlight’ argyranthemum (Argyranthemum frutescens) retained flowers an additional 2 weeks and ‘Caritas Lavender’ angelonia (Angelonia angustifolia), ‘Dreamtime Copper’ bracteantha, ‘Liricashowers Deep Blue Imp.’ and ‘Starlette Trailing Purple’ calibrachoa (Calibrachoa hybrid), ‘Vanilla Sachet’ nemesia, ‘Cascadias Pink’ petunia (Petunia ×hybrida), and ‘Bridal Showers’ sutera retained flowers an additional 1 week when treated with 0% compared with 50% or 100% EPFR. Four cultivars had decreased plant width at harvest with 0% EPFR. These results indicate that reducing fertilization 2 weeks before harvest can prolong shelf life of some vegetative annuals. Differences in the length of shelf life and responses to reduced EPFR occurred among cultivars of all the affected species. Reduced EPFR did not increase the shelf life of two species, including diascia (Diascia ×hybrida) and lantana (Lantana camara).