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  • Author or Editor: Shahrokh Khanizadeh x
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Leaves of three strawberry cultivars (Bounty', `Honeoye', and `Kent') were collected at random from plants growing in an experimental trial at the Agriculture Canada, Research Station farm at Lavaltrie, Quebec. Steam-distillation was carried out on 300g of leaves in 3L of distilled water in a 5L flask. The essential oils were analyscd with a Varian 6000 gas chromatogmph. Thirty-seven compounds were detected of which sixteen were identified. The major components were linalool and nonanal. Many of the other constituents were aliphatic in nature. Differences in oil composition among the three cultivars were observed. Essential oil composition might therefore be used as a selection criteria for insect or disease resistance. Their effect upon mites will be assayed in future studies by testing them as sex, food, or oviposition lures.

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UniBase is a Windows-based (95, 98, NT, 2000, or XP) user-friendly software package that was developed for those who are interested in creating their own instant databases, add information to an existing databases or import data and images from Excel in a choice of languages. The software is very useful for germplasm inventory (fruit crops, vegetables, ornamentals, agronomic crops, weeds, chemicals, insects, pests, animals, etc.) and can be used in any breeding program (animal, horticulture, agronomy, etc.) to trace pedigrees and view images and characteristics of progenies. The database can be searched using various criteria and the use of several operators. An unlimited number of images can be stored for each entry and several graphic formats including BMP, JPEG, GIF, TIFF, etc., can be used. Additional information on UniBase and available data and images can be obtained from the authors.

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`Oka' is a mid-season, high yielding June-bearing strawberry cultivar with excellent productivity, good fruit color, flavor and firmness. It is recommended for fesh market and pick your own for the Southern Québec region. `Oka' plants are of medium size, and vigor with five to seven inflorescences per mother plant. They can tolerate winter temperatures of -25 C. Inflorescences are held erect on medium to long peduncles during bloom, and become semi-erect as fruit mature. Fruits are large, wedge shape and the calyces are semi-reflexed. Skin is moderately shiny, light red at full maturity, and the flesh is light red. Fruit flavor is similar to `Bounty', `Chambly', `Glooscap' and `Sparkle'. Fruits are medium firm to firm, and can not be decapped as easily as `Bounty', `Chambly' or `Glooscap'. More than 50% of harvested fruit have long pedicels. Percent juice loss after thawing does not differ significantly from other popular cultivars. `Oka' has outyielded `Bounty', `Redcoat' and `Sparkle' at L'Acadie and `Bounty', `Glooscap', and `Veestar' in New Brunswick. Plants can tolerate the herbicide terbacil. No symptoms of powdery mildew or leaf scorch were observed during the course of its evaluation. However some symptoms of leaf spot were observed late in the season before the onset of dormancy. Preliminary studies show that `Oka' is resistant to races 2, 4, 5, 8, 9 and 10 of P. fragariae.

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The xenial and metaxenial effects of five different male sources on cross pollination of three pistachio cultivars, were studied in 1990 and 1991 in Rafsanjan/Iran. The pollen grains used were P. atlantica Desf., P. mutica F.& M., P. vera L. (Momtaz), P. vera L. (Soltani), and an open pollination. The female cultivars chosen were `Owhadi', `Kalleh-ghuchi', and `Momtaz', which occupy the largest cultivation area. Experiment was done in two successive years in a completely randomized design. Results of this study agreed with previous studies regarding the retardance of pistachio nut development by wild pollen species rather than P. vera L. The greatest change in various characteristics of nuts, e.g., kernel weight and shell splitting, occurred when P. mutica F.& M. pollen grains used followed by P. atlantica Desf. pollen grains. Thus, some manifestations of xenia and metaxenia could be inferred. In general, larger kernels and increased shell dehiscence resulted from the use of P. vera L. pollen grains. Greater kernel weight of `Kalleh-ghuchi', higher shell splitting of `Momtaz', and higher blank of `Owhadi' produced by pollination with P. vera L. in some extent could also be cultivar characteristics.

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Development of strawberry fruit depends on the number of fertilized achenes on the surface. The achenes are distributed on the receptacle surface in a pattern of more or less regular rows, spirally arranged. The number of achenes is determined by 1) counting the number of achenes per square centimeter of surface on ripe berries; 2) weighing the achenes after separation from the receptacle; or 3) counting the number of achenes after pressing the fruit between two layers of glass. The above methods are laborious and time-consuming. We, therefore, described anew semi-automated method (Image Analysis System, IAS) as an alternative to the above procedures. The IAS is capable of grouping the achenes into two or more categories based on their size (sound or aborted), surface area, color, volume, etc. This will facilitate the study of the relationship between achene number and fruit weight in strawberry.

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Three mathematical indices were developed to estimate: 1) potential for early dollar return or early ripening (IE), 2) concentrated cropping (IC), and 3) deviation or similarity of a genotype to known cultivars (ID). Early ripening genotypes with high yield early in the season will have larger IE values than late genotypes with lower yield early in the season. Genotypes with few harvests will have larger IC values than those requiring several harvests. The ID index helps to identify and group genotypes with similar characteristics. These indices condense numerous values or arrays of traits into single index values, thereby simplifying genotype comparisons.

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