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- Author or Editor: Sezai Ercisli x
During Fall and Winter 1999-2000 and 2000-2001, a study was conducted to evaluate the effects of exogenous IBA application (0, 2000, or 4000 ppm) and inoculation with Agrobacterium rubi (strains A1, A16, or A18) alone or in combination with each bacterial strain on rooting of hardwood stem cuttings of two rose selections (ERS 14, Rosa canina, and ERS 15, Rosa dumalis). Treatments of hardwood stem cuttings with IBA, bacteria alone and in combination with IBA were found to promote rooting. The highest rooting percentage was obtained among ERS 14 cuttings when treated with 4000 ppm IBA plus A. rubi A16. However, optimal rooting of ERS 15 was obtained when treated with 2000 ppm IBA plus A. rubi A18. Better rooting was observed in thornless ERS 15 genotype than in thorny ERS 14 genotype in both years. Chemical name used: 1H, indole-3-butyric acid (IBA).
Seeds of Orchis palustris Jacq. were primed for 1- to 5-day in polyethylene glycol (PEG-6000) solutions at -0.5, -1.0 or -1.5 MPa. The seeds were symbiotically germinated with BNR 8-3 mycorrhizal fungus on oatmeal agar at 22 °C. In general, priming hastened rapid germination. At -1.5 MPa water potential, the first to germinate was eight days compared to 18 days for the control. Percentage germination increased as priming water potential decreased, and the percentage germination was 55%, 58%, and 65%, at -0.5, -1.0, and -1.5 MPa, respectively, versus 43% for the nonprimed control. Priming duration from 1 to 5 days had little effect on germination performance. The best germination percentage (68%) was obtained from 1 day at -1.5 MPa treatment.
Fruits of 11 cherry laurel (Laurocerasus officinalis L.) genotypes grown in a single location, Rize province, were analyzed for their fruit characteristics. Both physical and chemical characteristics of cherry laurel fruits were significantly influenced by genotypes. Fruit weight, the number of fruits per cluster, and flesh per seed ratio ranged between 1.87 and 4.01 g; 9.21 and 21.05, and 5.54 and 9.33, respectively. The genotypes R06 and R09 had the highest total anthocyanin [205 and 202 mg/100 g fresh weight (FW), respectively] and R06 and R11 had the highest total phenolic contents (503 and 481 mg/100 g FW, respectively). Total carotenoid and vitamin C contents ranged from 207 to 278 mg/100 g FW and 2.1 to 4.1 mg/100 g FW, respectively. Soluble solid content (SSC), crude fiber, crude protein, pectin, ash, and pH of genotypes fell between 9.64% and 17.10%; 0.44% and 0.85%; 1.44% and 2.09%; 0.20% and 0.47%; 0.25% and 0.71%, and 4.30 and 4.93, respectively. Data demonstrated that the great variations observed in the physical and chemical characteristics of individual cherry laurel genotypes might be explained by genotypic effect because all genotypes grew under the same ecological conditions. The investigated genotypes seemed to be perspective in health promotion.
The S-genotypes of a set of Turkish and Hungarian apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) cultivars were determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of their S-RNase intron regions. In addition, the S-genotyping method was extended to the SFB gene to detect the non-functional S C-haplotype and hence reliably identify self-compatible apricot cultivars. We determined the complete S-genotype of 51 cultivars and the partial S-genotype of four cultivars. A total of 32 different S-genotypes were assigned to the 51 cultivars, and many of them (28) were classified into newly established cross-incompatibility groups III through XIV. Another 12 cultivars demonstrated unique incompatible genotypes and seven self-compatible cultivars were identified in the examined accessions. The fact that Turkish and Hungarian apricot cultivars carry 12 and five S-alleles, respectively, and all five alleles detected in Hungarian cultivars were also present in Turkish apricots furnished molecular evidence supporting the long-suspected historical connection between Hungarian and Turkish apricots. The connection between these two gene pools appeared to be relatively recent and associated with historical events dating back 300 years. Our results confirm that Turkish germplasm contributed considerably to the development of several desirable Hungarian apricot cultivars. Results suggest that the mutation rendering the S C-haplotype non-functional might have occurred somewhere east of central Turkey.
Inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers were used to study the genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships among 16 genotypes from subgenus Prunus (six genotypes from section Prunophora, seven genotypes from section Armeniaca and two plumcot genotypes, and one genotype from subgenus Cerasus) in Prunus genus. From the polymerase chain reaction amplifications with 20 ISSR primers showing polymorphism among subgenera and sections, 180 polymorphic ISSR bands were detected and polymorphism ratio ranged from 57% to 100%. Based on the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) analysis and principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) using the Jaccard coefficient, a dendrogram and three-dimensional plot were constructed including genotypes in Prunus genus. Two main groups formed in the dendrogram; one of them (Cluster I) included Cerasus, whereas Cluster II included Prunus. Cluster II also divided into three subgroups, including sections Prunophora, Armeniaca, and plumcot. Both UPGMA and the PCoA demonstrated that Armeniaca genotypes had lower genetic variation and plumcot genotypes are closer to the plums than the apricots. The ISSR-based phylogeny was generally consistent with Prunus taxonomy based on molecular evidence, suggesting the applicability of ISSR analysis for genotypic and phylogenetic studies in Prunus genus.
Mulberries (Morus L.) show a great deal of genetic variability and adaptability to various environments. There are more than 24 species of mulberries in cultivated and wild forms. In Turkey, three Morus species, M. alba L., M. nigra L., and M. rubra L., are grown. In this study, we attempted to characterize 43 Morus accessions originating from distinct regions of Turkey using fluorescent dye amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers and capillary electrophoresis. The accessions belonged to M. alba, M. nigra, and M. rubra; M. alba consisted of white- and purple-fruited samples. Eight primer combinations generated a total of 416 bands, 337 of which were polymorphic (80.5%). Resolving powers of the AFLP primers ranged from 0.410 to 0.942 making a total of 5.015, whereas the polymorphic information content ranged from 0.662 to 0.898 with an average of 0.812. Unweighted pair-group method of arithmetic mean (UPGMA) clustering of the accessions showed three major groups representing M. nigra, M. rubra, and M. alba accessions. The M. alba group had two subgroups that were not correlated with fruit color. The UPGMA dendrogram of average taxonomic differences confirmed these results. The principle coordinate analysis demonstrated that M. nigra accessions had limited genetic variation. In conclusion, our study indicated that M. nigra and M. rubra are molecularly distinct from M. alba. Our results also suggest that M. nigra accessions having a low level of morphological variation are molecularly similar.
Individuals in most countries around the world drink tea (Camellia sinensis). Tea drinking has attained ceremonial status in many places as a social and medicinal beverage. Although tea is of great importance in Turkey's economy, little is known about the pattern of genetic variation among the various tea genotypes grown in Turkey. A total of 32 tea genotypes found at the Ataturk Tea and Horticulture Research Institute in the eastern Black Sea region of Turkey were sampled. Fluorescent dye amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers and capillary electrophoresis were applied for molecular characterization. The AFLP analysis with six primer combinations generated 835 fragments of which 567 were polymorphic, corresponding to 69.8% polymorphism. Resolving powers of the AFLP primers ranged from 62.6 to 81.9, yielding a total of 437.8; the polymorphic information content (PIC) ranged from 0.76 to 0.83, with an average of 0.79. Genetic similarity values ranged from 0.68 to 0.92, with an average of 0.76. The dendrogram derived by unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean algorithm (UPGMA) and principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) revealed that all tea genotypes could be clearly divided into four distinct clusters. The results of this study will provide valuable information to the tea cultivar breeding program for the purpose of parental selection.