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  • Author or Editor: Seung Moon Roh x
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Abstract

Phytochrome decay and reversion were measured in excised inner scales of Lilium longiflorum. Total phytochrome decreased by 25% in 4 hours after the initial 10 minute red light treatment. There was dark reversion of the phytochrome pigment from the far-red absorbing form to the red absorbing form.

Open Access

Abstract

Treatment of inner daughter scales of lily bulbs with red or far-red light significantly accelerated shoot emergence. A red or far-red treatment from 2200-0200 accelerated emergence after a red or dark treatment from 0800-1600. A red or far-red treatment from 2200-0200 after a far-red treatment from 0800-1600 delayed emergence when compared to a far-red, dark treatment sequence.

Open Access

Abstract

Thirty days of night interruptions (4 to 6 hours) or day extensions (4 to 8 hours) were given using incandescent (I), cool white fluorescent (CWF), and BCJ-ruby incandescent (BCJ) light sources to newly emerged shoots from ‘Nellie White’ lily (Lilium longiflorum) bulbs vernalized (4.4°C) for 0, 1, 3, or 6 weeks.

Regardless of light source a 6 hour night interruption (2200 to 0200) was more effective in accelerating anthesis than day extensions (1600 to 2000 or 0400 to 0800). There were no differences in the dates of anthesis between the light treatments when used as a night interruption with shoots from non-vernalized bulbs. Using partially or non-vernalized bulbs a day extension of CWF light delayed flowering when compared to I or BCJ. This delay by CWF was removed when bulbs were fully vernalized.

Leaf and flower bud number were reduced by bulb vernalization and effective shoot light treatments. Plant height was increased by shoot light treatment and was additive to the bulb temperature effect.

We hypothesize that bulb vernalization and shoot photoperiod treatments lead to rapid flowering through 2 inducing mechanisms. These mechanisms are phytochrome and high energy reaction (HER) systems.

Open Access

Abstract

‘Nellie White’ and ‘Ace’ lily plants from non-vernalized bulbs were placed in growth chambers for temperature and photoperiod treatments at various stages of development.

Under a 16-hour photoperiod, a 21.1°/12.8°C day/night temperature regime was optimal from shoot emergence to flower bud initiation for early flowering and high flower numbers. The increases in the flower numbers were due to the increased number of secondary and tertiary flower buds. Primary buds were constant regardless of temperature and photoperiod treatment. Under a 16-hour photoperiod a night temperature of 7.2° favored secondary bud formation, while a 15.6° night temperature favored tertiary bud formation.

Under a 12-hour photoperiod from floral initiation to visible buds, a 18.3°/15.6°C day/night temperature regime was optimal for early flowering and a minimum loss of flower buds.

Under a 12-hour photoperiod from the visible bud stage to anthesis, a 21.1°/18.3°C day/night temperature regime was optimal for early flowering with the fewest aborted tertiary buds.

Open Access

Abstract

Optimum temperatures for rapid shoot emergence from non-cooled bulbs was a constant 12.8°C with ‘Ace’ and ‘Nellie White’ lilies. Twenty-four hour cycles of 1.7°/12.8°C delayed shoot emergence of both cultivars.

Using 115 days from shoot emergence to flowering as a standard, 6 weeks of 24 hour cyclic temperature treatments of 1.7°/12.8°C produced more flower buds in ‘Ace’ than did 1.7°/7.2° or 7.2°/1.7° treatments. In ‘Nellie White’ constant 1.7°, 1.7°/12.8°, or 12.8°/1.7° temperature treatments produced more flower buds than 1.7°/7.2° or 7.2°/1.7° treatment. Leaf number and plant height were not affected by alternating temperature treatments.

With ‘Nellie White’ an intercalation of 3 weeks at 15.6°C temperature treatment to bulbs after 1, 2, or 3 weeks of 4.4°C increased secondary flower bud (development) when compared to a continuous 4.4°C bulb treatment for 5 or 6 weeks. No differences in days to flower from potting and in plant height were obtained among the various temperature treatments in both ‘Ace’ and ‘Nellie White’. Increases in total flower bud number were due to the increases in the secondary bud number.

Open Access

Abstract

Flowering was accelerated by incandescent light day extensions of 3 minutes of light and 27 minutes of dark or longer light cycles and by 15 minutes of light and 15 minutes of dark cycles when BCJ-ruby incandescent light was given to young shoots from non-vernalized bulbs. If bulbs were vernalized for 3 weeks, cool white fluorescent light accelerated flowering as a day extension. As a night interruption, incandescent, fluorescent or BCJ-ruby incandescent cyclic light treatments accelerated flowering of shoots from vernalized or non-vernalized bulbs.

Day extensions of cyclic fluorescent or BCJ-ruby light treatments of 6 minutes on and 24 off or 3 minutes on and 27 off did not mediate a phytochrome controlled flowering response and along with the fact that there was no photoreversibility between day extensions of incandescent, fluorescent or BCJ-ruby incandescent light, indicate a high energy reaction involvement in the flowering of the lily.

As a night interruption treatment, a phytochrome mediated flowering response was observed with 3 minutes of light on and 27 off or 6 minutes on and 24 off cyclics of fluorescent or BCJ-ruby incandescent light treatments. However, as the light period increased to 15 minutes on and 15 off or under a continuous light cycle, there were no differences in the flowering response between fluorescent or BCJ-ruby incandescent. As night interruptions there was a reversibility response by R — FR, but not by FR — R. This indicated the simultaneous operation of the phytochrome and the high energy reaction.

Open Access

Abstract

Lilium longiflorum cv. Ace and Nellie White shoots from non-vernalized bulbs were intercalated during the 30 long day night-interruption by 10 or 20 natural days. The interrupted long day effect can be summated for early flowering with the same response as that seen under a continuous long day treatment. However, increased total flower numbers were obtained.

Open Access

Abstract

Soil drenches of α-cyclopropyl-α-(p-methyxyphenyl)-5-pyrimidinemethanol (ancymidol) were applied at 3 stages of Lilium longiflorum development. Under a natural photoperiod the internodes of ‘Arai’ lily shoots from vernalized bulbs were reduced by ancymidol without delay of anthesis, but 3 applications reduced flower number and resulted in weak stems. Ancymidol treatments did not delay anthesis of ‘Nellie White’ lilies from non-vernalized bulbs whose shoots were induced to flower by 8 hour long-day photoperiod extensions. However, an apparent interaction occurred between photoperiod and ancymidol as there were increased heights of ‘Nellie White’ lily shoots when treated with ancymidol.

Open Access