In Hawaii, Waltheria indica (uhaloa) has been identified for expanded usage as a roadside groundcover in lowland dry ecosystems. Seed dormancy through lack of germination of viable seeds was identified in uhaloa. The presence of physical dormancy in uhaloa seeds was determined and dormancy relief methods were evaluated including hand scarification, dry heat temperature exposure, hot water exposure, and mechanical abrasion in an electric drum scarifier. As a compliment to dormancy relief, long-term storage parameters were evaluated for scarified and nonscarified seeds. The elucidation of physical dormancy was determined through hand scarification, resulting in 96% germination compared with 8% of nonscarified seeds, but is not practical on a large-scale basis. The greatest practical dormancy relief was achieved with a mechanical electric drum scarifier lined with 80-grit sandpaper for a duration of 15 or 30 seconds producing 95% and 99% germination, respectively. Seeds immersed in boiling water for 3 and 5 seconds resulted in 58.6% and 57.7% germination, respectively. Dormancy relief through dry heat exposure was inferior to other relief methods, producing 39% germination at 75 °C for 60 minutes. Nonscarified seeds exhibited minimal loss of viability during 10 months of storage at 5 °C at 12% and 50% relative humidity (RH), but a significant decline in viability of scarified seeds was detected.
Scott B. Lukas, Joseph DeFrank, and Orville C. Baldos
Scott B. Lukas, Joseph DeFrank, Orville C. Baldos, and Ruijun Qin
Seed dormancy is an evolutionary adaptation for increasing seedling survival by delaying germination and is found in many families of seed plants. Although dormancy is ecologically important, it becomes problematic during agronomic production and restoration. Torrid panicgrass (Panicum torridum) is a native Hawaiian annual grass that has been identified as a re-vegetation candidate for seasonally dry areas. Torrid panicgrass seed appears to possess a nondeep to intermediate physiological dormancy. This research aimed to characterize dormancy relief parameters by 1) evaluating exogenous hormonal, reactive oxygen intermediates, and simulated combustion product treatments; and 2) determining optimized storage conditions of relative humidity (RH) and temperature over a 10-month duration. Results indicate that all exogenous chemical treatments tested were not effective at relieving the dormancy present in torrid panicgrass. Optimal storage conditions to relieve dormancy were found with seeds equilibrated to 12% RH, stored at 30 °C for a period of 8 months resulting in 55% germination. Maintenance of viability for long-term storage up to 10 months was best achieved with seeds stored at 12% RH at 10, 20, or 30 °C.
David R. Bryla, Carolyn F. Scagel, Scott B. Lukas, and Dan M. Sullivan
Excess salinity is becoming a prevalent problem for production of highbush blueberry (Vaccinium L. section Cyanococcus Gray), but information on how and when it affects the plants is needed. Two experiments, including one on the northern highbush (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) cultivar, Bluecrop, and another on the southern highbush (V. corymbosum interspecific hybrid) cultivar, Springhigh, were conducted to investigate their response to salinity and assess whether any suppression in growth was ion specific or due primarily to osmotic stress. In both cases, the plants were grown in soilless media (calcined clay) and fertigated using a complete nutrient solution containing four levels of salinity [none (control), low (0.7–1.3 mmol·d−1), medium (1.4–3.4 mmol·d−1), and high (2.8–6.7 mmol·d−1)] from either NaCl or CaCl2. Drainage was minimized in each treatment except for periodic determination of electrical conductivity (EC) using the pour-through method, which, depending on the experiment, reached levels as high as 3.2 to 6.3 dS·m−1 with NaCl and 7.8 to 9.5 dS·m−1 with CaCl2. Total dry weight of the plants was negatively correlated to EC and, depending on source and duration of the salinity treatment, decreased linearly at a rate of 1.6 to 7.4 g·dS−1·m−1 in ‘Bluecrop’ and 0.4 to 12.5 g·dS−1·m−1 in ‘Springhigh’. Reductions in total dry weight were initially similar between the two salinity sources; however, by the end of the study, which occurred at 125 days in ‘Bluecrop’ and at 111 days in ‘Springhigh’, dry weight declined more so with NaCl than with CaCl2 in each part of the plant, including in the leaves, stems, and roots. The percentage of root length colonized by mycorrhizal fungi also declined with increasing levels of salinity in Bluecrop and was lower in both cultivars when the plants were treated with NaCl than with CaCl2. However, leaf damage, which included tip burn and marginal necrosis, was greater with CaCl2 than with NaCl. In general, CaCl2 had no effect on uptake or concentration of Na in the plant tissues, whereas NaCl reduced Ca uptake in both cultivars and reduced the concentration of Ca in the leaves and stems of Bluecrop and in each part of the plant in Springhigh. Salinity from NaCl also resulted in higher concentrations of Cl and lower concentrations of K in the plant tissues than CaCl2 in both cultivars. The concentration of other nutrients in the plants, including N, P, Mg, S, B, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn, was also affected by salinity, but in most cases, the response was similar between the two salts. These results point to ion-specific effects of different salts on the plants and indicate that source is an important consideration when managing salinity in highbush blueberry.
Scott B. Lukas, Joseph DeFrank, Orville C. Baldos, and Glenn S. Sakamoto
In Hawaii, seashore dropseed (Sporobolus virginicus), a coastal native grass, has been identified as a useful species for roadside revegetation. Cuttings of seashore dropseed covered with a hydromulch cap, irrigated, and managed to control weeds have greater establishment success. In this study, the efficacy and phytotoxicity of the preemergence herbicide oxadiazon applied as a component of the hydromulch cap over seashore dropseed cut stems was evaluated. Oxadiazon in two formulations, granule and suspension concentrate (SC), was applied at two rates of 2.0 and 4.0 lb/acre, resulting in four chemical treatments. Seashore dropseed response was recorded as numerical counts of new shoots, aboveground biomass, and percent visual coverage. The highest new shoot counts of seashore dropseed, aboveground biomass, and visual canopy coverage were recorded in plots treated with the granular (G) formulation of oxadiazon applied at 2.0 lb/acre. All hydromulch cap treatments containing herbicides reduced weed pressure compared with the untreated control treatment. Granular oxadiazon at 2.0 lb/acre in the hydromulch cap provided commercially acceptable weed control while maintaining high levels of rooting and plant vigor during the establishment period.