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  • Author or Editor: Sanjai J. Parikh x
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Feras Almasri, Husein A. Ajwa, Sanjai J. Parikh and Kassim Al-Khatib

Methyl bromide (MeBr) was identified as a stratospheric ozone depletory; therefore, the use of MeBr was phased out in the United States in 2005. Chloropicrin (CP) and allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) are MeBr replacements. A mixture of CP and AITC is commonly applied to broaden the pest control spectrum. These two fumigants have low soil mobility; however, their efficacy could be improved if their soil mobility were enhanced. This research was conducted to study the effects of surfactants applied at 5% (v/v) for CP mobility and AITC mobility in soils. Mobility of the CP/AITC mixture applied with a nonionic surfactant comprising oleic, linoleic, and palmitic acids (nonionic-1) and mobility of the CP/AITC mixture applied with a nonionic surfactant comprising C9 hydrocarbon aromatics and calcium alkylarylsuphonate (nonionic-2) were compared with mobility of the CP/AITC mixture applied without surfactants in three soils (Elder sandy loam, Chualar loam, and Blanco clay loam) during a laboratory study. Nonionic-1 surfactant increased the concentration of total leachate collected for AITC by five and CP by 11 compared with CP/AITC applied alone. Surfactants may influence the fumigant mobility in soil by affecting the sorption/desorption equilibrium. Our research suggested that increased AITC mobility and CP mobility in soil with the addition of adding nonionic-1 surfactant may be due to the adsorption behavior of the surfactant in the soil and the solubilizing capability of the surfactant with pesticides.