Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 4 of 4 items for

  • Author or Editor: S.J. Wallner x
Clear All Modify Search

Abstract

Seedlings of Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.), perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), red fescue (Festuca rubra L.), and weeping alkaligrass [Puccinellia distans (L.) Parl.] were exposed to water stress prior to measuring heat tolerance of leaf blade segments. Heat tolerance was determined using an electrolyte leakage assay. Water stress pretreatments did not increase in vitro heat tolerance of turfgrass leaves.

Open Access

Abstract

Injury to turfgrass leaf segments was measured as percent electrolyte leakage as affected by the duration and level of imposed heat stress. Species differences in heat tolerance were most apparent when injury was monitored over time at 50°C, using leaf segments which were obtained from heat-hardened plants and immersed in distilled water during the stress treatment. Quantitative differences in heat tolerance in vitro were consistent with qualitative descriptions of drought resistance for most of the species tested.

Open Access

The need for salinity-tolerant turfgrasses is increasing because of increased use of effluent water for turfgrass irrigation. Greenhouse studies were conducted to determine the relative salt tolerance and salt tolerance mechanisms of `Challenger' Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis), `Arid' tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea), `Fults' alkaligrass (Puccinellia distans.), and a saltgrass (Distichlis spicata) collection. Kentucky bluegrass and tall fescue were irrigated with saline solutions at 0.2,1.7, 4.8, or 9.9 dS/m, whereas alkaligrass and saltgrass were irrigated with saline solutions at 0.2, 28.1, 32.8, or 37.5 dS/m prepared using a mixture of NaCl and CaCl2. The salinity levels that caused 50% shoot growth reduction were 9.0, 10.4, 20.0, and 28.5 dS/m for Kentucky bluegrass, tall fescue, saltgrass, and alkaligrass, respectively. Concentrations of proline, a proposed cytoplasmic compatible solute, were 25.8, 30.4, 68.1, and 17.7 μmol/g shoot fw in Kentucky bluegrass, tall Fescue, alkaligrass, and saltgrass, respectively, at the highest salinity level imposed. Bicellular, salt-secreting glands were only observed by scanning electron microscopy on leaves of saltgrass, indicating salt secretion is one of the important salt tolerance mechanisms adopted by saltgrass. Ion contents (Na, Cl, and Ca) in both shoots and roots of all grasses increased with increasing salinity levels. However, alkaligrass maintained a much lower Na, Ca, and Cl contents in roots and shoots than other grasses, suggesting that ion exclusion is one of the major salt tolerance mechanisms in alkaligrass. Tall fescue did not appear to restrict the uptake and translocation of salt in shoot tissues, but maintained a higher K/Na ratio than all other grasses under saline conditions.

Free access