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S.D. Sharma and M. Singh

Greenhouse and field trials were carried out to evaluate carfentrazone as a potential tank mix with glyphosate to control weeds. Application of active ingredient glyphosate at 1.15 kg·ha−1 provided 44%, 50%, 19%, and 17% control of ivyleaf morning-glory, milkweed vine, hemp sesbania, and field-bind weed (stage 1), respectively, and increased to 45%, 51%, 31%, and 76%, respectively, with active ingredient of 2.30 kg·ha−1. Carfentrazone as active ingredient at 17.7 g·ha−1 achieved 53%, 90%, and 99% control of hemp sesbania, ivyleaf morning-glory, and milkweed vine (stage 1), and increased to 88%, 98% in first two weed plants, respectively, with active ingredient at 52.2 g·ha−1. Either rate of carfentrazone at any stages of field-bind weed yielded ≈100% control. Application of tank-mixed glyphosate and carfentrazone to ivyleaf morning-glory and hemp sesbania (stage 1) demonstrated greater control than their sole applications. A complete control of milkweed vine and field-bind weed (stage 1) was achieved by tank-mixed glyphosate and carfentrazone. Corresponding to percent control values a reduction in biomass value was also recorded. Biomass reduction with glyphosate at either stage of ivyleaf morning-glory was only 14%–24% and reduction with carfentrazone was 40%–47%. Biomass was further reduced with the tank-mixed glyphosate and carfentrazone. A similarly trend in biomass reduction was noted in milkweed vine and hemp sesbania. However, ivyleaf morning-glory was found to be the most tolerant weed to glyphosate followed by hemp sesbania, milkweed vine, and field-bind weed. Tank-mixed applications of these two herbicides further increased the percent control and biomass reduction. In all weed species, there was a significant decrease in percent biomass reduction with age. Although the types of weed were different in the field experiment and greenhouse, a similar trend was observed in the percent control achieved with glyphosate, carfentrazone, and their tank-mixed application. Tank-mixed applications achieved 93%–95% control of Brazil pusley and 75%–83% control of passion flower. These values were significantly higher than the percent control achieved with application of only glyphosate. Therefore, tank-mixed application of glyphosate and carfentrazone may be beneficial than sole application to control broadleaf weeds.

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H.F. Abouziena, O.M. Hafez, I.M. El-Metwally, S.D. Sharma and M. Singh

Organic crop production, whether for export or local consumption, is increasing to avoid the residual effects of synthetic herbicides in foods, soil, and water, toxicity to other nontarget organisms, and herbicide-resistant weed populations. Organic farmers consistently ranked weed management as one of their most important production problems. Therefore, a 2-year study was conducted under 15-year-old mandarin trees to compare the effects of rice straw mulch, cattail mulch, black plastic mulch, hand hoeing, cultivation, glyphosate, and unweeded control treatments on weed control, fruit yield, and fruit quality. The greatest control (94%–100%) of weeds occurred with the plastic mulch (200 or 150 μm) and three mulch layers of rice straw or cattail. Covering soil with cattail or rice straw mulch (two layers) gave 85% to 98% control of weeds. Uncontrolled weeds in the weedy control caused significant reduction in yield and fruit quality and decreased the yield/tree by 62% compared with hand hoe treatment. Plastic mulches of 200 and 150 μm, cattail (Cyprus articulatus L.) mulch (two or three layers) and two mulch layers of rice (Oryza sativa L.) straw treatments significantly increased the fruit yield/tree by 24%, 18%, 20%, 11%, and 12% more than cultivation treatment, respectively, without significant differences among these superior treatments. Soil mulching with three layers of rice straw, cultivation, glyphosate, and 80-μm plastic mulch treatments caused a significant reduction in weed density and weed biomass, but gave lower yield than superior treatments. Total soluble solids of fruits was unaffected by any of the weed management strategies, whereas values of total acidity and vitamin C were significantly lower in the unwedded control than most weeded treatments. These results demonstrate that two layers of cattail or rice straw mulch could be used effectively for controlling weeds in citrus groves. Their effectiveness in controlling weeds may increase their use in agriculture systems with a concomitant decrease in the need for synthetic herbicides. Further studies are needed to evaluate their side effects on beneficial organisms, diseases, and insects.