You are looking at 1 - 7 of 7 items for
- Author or Editor: S.A. Weis x
In a population of `Delicious' apples (Malus domestica Borkh.) with varying seed number at harvest, fruit size and Ca concentration in fruit increased with seed number. Neither K nor Mg concentration in fruit was related to seed number. In another population of `McIntosh' apples from 50 commercial orchard blocks, the percentage of fruit that developed senescent breakdown, a Ca-deficiency disorder, decreased linearly as seed number per fruit increased. Low seed number is probably a factor contributing to Ca deficiency in apple fruit.
A 4-year study compared CaCl2, Ca(H2PO4)2, and a polyphenolic acid chelate of Ca, applied as foliar sprays, for improving apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) fruit quality. Technical grade 77% to 80% flake CaCl2 consistently increased fruit Ca concentrations and reduced senescent breakdown after storage and occasionally reduced superficial scald after air storage. When materials other than Ca(H2P04)2 were applied at concentrations providing soluble Ca concentrations equal to that of technical grade CaCl2, equal benefits were achieved. Treatments that increased Ca also usually reduced Mg concentrations in outer cortex tissue. Ca(H2PO4)2 increased fruit P but not fruit Ca concentration, and a reduction in superficial scald was the only accompanying benefit to the fruit.
Three different methods of sampling flesh of apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) for Ca analysis produced different results due to uneven Ca distribution in the fruit. A sensitive, reproducible method of sampling and analyzing the outer cortex of the calyx half of fruits indicated that Ca concentration in different parts of the fruit changed significantly after harvest, decreasing in the core and increasing in the outer cortical tissues. Massive applications of CaCl2 to trees shortly before harvest increased flesh Ca concentrations and red coloration of the fruit, decreased flesh softening during storage and senescent breakdown after storage, but caused significant injury to the fruit.
Low-dose gamma-irradiation is becoming increasingly an attractive viable technology for control of food-borne pathogens and extension of shelf life of fruits and vegetables. Typically, gamma-irradiation treatment appears to transiently stimulate ethylene synthesis in tomato, which appears to be stress associated, and dose dependent (Larrigaudie et al., 199l). We have investigated the effects of gamma-irradiation treatment at doses of 0, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0 kGy, alone and in combination with water-based chemical treatment for improving the storage of tomato maintained at 20 °C and 95% RH for 20 days of storage. Changes in ethylene, ascorbic acid and total antioxidant content, color, total soluble solids and carbohydrate concentration were examined. Our preliminary results indicate that these treatments are effective in reducing ethylene concentration in storage while providing a means of eliminating foodborne pathogens without adversely affecting tomato quality.
The health status of Alabama's population ranks above the national average with respect to the prevalence of poor overall health indicators. Consumer knowledge of the health benefits of consumption of fresh fruit is lacking. The compositional and nutritional qualities of fruit are highly variable among states with different climate, soil, and other environmental conditions. Compositional and nutritional data of fresh fruit that reflect Alabama growing conditions is limited. Commercially fully ripened kiwi fruit (Actinidia deliciosa cvs. Fitzgerald and Hayward) were compared for fruit quality (pH, TA, °Brix, °Brix/TA, and soluble sugars), and antioxidant properties; Vitamin C (reduced, oxidized, and total), Vitamin C Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (VCEAC), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), DPPH radical scavenging activity, total phenolics, and flavonoids. In general, `Fitzgerald' ranked higher in overall fruit quality and antioxidant properties when compared to `Hayward'.
The effects of growing and storage locations and storage temperature on soft scald incidence of `Honeycrisp' apples were examined. In 1999 and 2000, fruits were produced at five different locations, harvested at two different times, and stored at two or five different storage locations. In 1999, fruits were stored at 0 or 2 °C. Soft scald was only observed in fruits from one growing location and primarily at 0 °C. More soft scald was observed from the second harvest than from the first. Scalded fruits were preclimacteric as determined by ethylene production rate, whereas fruits from the other locations were postclimacteric. In 2000, fruits from four of the growing locations developed soft scald, and soft scald incidence was not related to ethylene production rate. Scalded fruits had higher concentrations of phosphorus, boron, and magnesium, and lower concentrations of manganese than unaffected fruit. Development of soft scald was not related to fruit ethylene production rates, was dependent on growing location, increased with later harvest, and may be related to fruit elemental content.
In continuing trials (1995-current), we have used a variety of treatments to overcome inadequate chilling, coordinate bloom, improve leaf out and cropping, and advance/coordinate maturity in sweet cherry, cv. Bing. Treatments have included hydrogen cyanamide (HCN, Dormex) and various surfactants or dormant oils combined with calcium ammonium nitrate (CAN17). Chill hour accumulation, (required chilling for `Bing' = 850 to 880 chill hours) has varied greatly in each dormant season from 392 (Hollister, 1995-1996) to adequate, depending both on the season and location (central valley vs. coastal valley). In 1998, 4% HCN advanced budbreak significantly compared to any other treatment, although other chemical treatments also were more advanced than the untreated control. Dormex advanced completion of bloom 11% to 40% more than other treatments, although other dormancy-replacing chemicals were at least 16% more advanced in petal fall than the untreated control. Dormex contributed to slightly elevated truss bud death, as did 2% Armobreak + 25% CAN17. In 1998, fruit set was improved by 2% Armobreak + 25% CAN17 (79%) compared to the untreated control (50%); all other treatments statistically equaled the control. Fruit set was not improved by Dormex, although bloom was advanced by a few days in this treatment. As fruit set was increased by treatments, rowsize decreased (as did fruit weight), as expected, but no treatment resulted in unacceptable size. In 1997, fruit set was also improved by 2% Armobreak + 25% CAN17; however, fruit set was so low overall in that year that no real impact was found. In 1997 and 1998, 4% HCN advanced fruit maturity compared to other treatments, with darker, softer, larger fruit at commercial harvest. These and additional results will be presented.