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  • Author or Editor: S. R. Carr x
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Abstract

Topped 1- and 2-year-old seedlings of silver maple (Acer saccharinum L.), American sycamore (Platanus occidentalis L.), cottonwood (Populus deltoides Marsh.) and American elm (Ulmus americana L.) were treated with each of 10 growth regulating chemicals in the greenhouse by chemical injection. Daminozide [butanedioic acid mono (2,2-dimethylhydrazide], maleic hydrazide [l,2-dihydro-3,6 pyridazinedione] and the soldium salt of dikegulac [2,3:4,6-bis-0-(l-methyl-ethylidene)-L-xylo-2-hexulofuranosonic acid] controlled regrowth at appropriate concentrations without causing unacceptable phytotoxicity.

Open Access

The major components of flavor in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) and other fruit are thought to be sugars, acids, and flavor volatiles. Tomato overall acceptability, tomato-like flavor, sweetness, and sourness for six to nine tomato cultivars were analyzed by experienced panels using a nine-point scale and by trained descriptive analysis panels using a 15-cm line scale for sweetness, sourness, three to five aroma and three to seven taste descriptors in three seasons. Relationships between sensory data and instrumental analyses, including flavor volatiles, soluble solids (SS), individual sugars converted to sucrose equivalents (SE), titratable acidity (TA), pH, SS/TA, and SE/TA, were established using correlation and multiple linear regression. For instrumental data, SS/TA, SE/TA, TA, and cis-3-hexenol correlated with overall acceptability (P = 0.05); SE, SE/TA (P≤0.03), geranylacetone, 2+3-methylbutanol and 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one (P = 0.11) with tomato-like flavor; SE, pH, cis-3-hexenal, trans-2-hexenal, hexanal, cis-3-hexenol, geranylacetone, 2+3-methylbutanol, trans-2 heptenal, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, and 1-nitro-2-phenylethane (P≤0.11) with sweetness; and SS, pH, acetaldehyde, aceton, 2-isobutylthiazole, geranlyacetone, β-ionone, ethanol, hexanal and cis-3-hexenal with sourness (P≤0.15) for experienced or trained panel data. Measurements for SS/TA correlated with overall taste (P=0.09) and SS with astringency, bitter aftertaste, and saltiness (P≤0.07) for trained panel data. In addition to the above mentioned flavor volatiles, methanol and 1-penten-3-one significantly affected sensory responses (P = 0.13) for certain aroma descriptors. Levels of aroma compounds affected perception of sweetness and sourness and measurements of SS showed a closer relationship to sourness, astringency, and bitterness than to sweetness.

Free access

Abstract

Water solutions of commercial formulations of growth regulators were pressure-injected into the trunks of topped American elm (Ulmus americana L.) trees in June to evaluate their ability to reduce sprout regrowth. Regrowth was significantly reduced by methyl 2-chloro-9-hydroxyfluorene-9-carboxylate (chlorflurenol), N-[4-methyl-3-[[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl]amino] = phenyl]acetamide (fluoridamid), l,2-dihydro-3,6-pyridazine-dione (maleic hydrazide), succinic acid,2,2-dimethylhydrazide (daminozide) and 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA); α-cyclopropyl-α-(4-methoxypenyl)-5-pyrimidine = methanol (ancymidol) and (2-chloroethyl)trimethyl-ammonium chloride (chlormequat) were ineffective. Some undesirable effects on the tree and foliage were observed. Maleic hydrazide (MH) and daminozide (SADH) were selected for additional field tests at 3 concentration levels on topped American elm and American sycamore (Platanus occidentalis L.). Regrowth was significantly reduced and foliage condition was acceptable for the high concentration of SADH and the low concentration of MH. Successive measurements in both experiments showed that sprout regrowth was reduced by an amount equivalent to at least 1 year of growth during the first 2 seasons following treatment.

Open Access