External and internal tomato irregular ripening (TIR) symptoms have been associated with the feeding of silverleaf whitefly (SLW), Bemisia argentifolii Bellows and Perring. Soil drench application of gibberellic acid (GA3) (100 ppm, Trial 1 and 2) and cycocel (CCC) (2000 ppm, Trial 1; 1000 ppm, Trial 2) were applied to dwarf cherry tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) in the presence and absence of SLW to mimic the TIR disorder induced by the SLW. Application of GA3 induced external and internal TIR symptoms similar to the SLW-induced disorder in `Florida Petite'. There were essentially no TIR symptoms in fruit treated with CCC, an inhibitor of GA biosynthesis. In Trial 1, internal white tissue in GA3, SLW, and CCC treatments was expressed in 97%, 95%, and 4% of the total fruit, respectively. Incidence of external TIR symptom was highest (56%) in the GA3 plus SLW treatment. In Trial 2, GA3 application in the presence (83%) or absence (85%) of SLW resulted in the highest incidence of fruit with internal white tissue. External TIR symptoms induced by GA3 in the presence and absence of SLW were reduced with CCC application. These results suggest that the TIR disorder in tomato is induced by the SLW may be a GA3-regulated disorder.
S. Hanif-Khan, P.J. Stoffella, J.K. Brecht, H.J. McAuslane, R.C. Bullock, C.A. Powell, and R. Yokomi
S. Hanif-Khan, R.C. Bullock, P.J. Stoffella, J.K. Brecht, C.A. Powell, and H.J. McAuslane
Silverleaf whitefly (SLW) (Bemisia argentifolii Bellows and Perring) feeding has been associated with development of tomato irregular ripening (TIR) symptoms. Four dwarf cultivars of cherry tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) were infested with adult SLW to observe oviposition preference, tolerance and TIR symptom development. Oviposition preference was observed at low SLW population. Florida Petite was the most preferred and Micro-Tom the least preferred cultivar, with Florida Lanai and Florida Basket intermediate. Each cultivar exhibited TIR symptoms associated with feeding by the SLW. TIR fruit symptoms were expressed as longitudinal red streaks with yellow, green, pink or red blotches externally, and white, yellow or green tissue internally. External TIR symptoms ranged from 32% (Micro-Tom) to 82% (Florida Basket). However, external symptoms disappeared from 34% (Florida Lanai) to 56% (Micro-Tom) of the fruits during ripening. SLW infested plants had 82% (Florida Lanai) to 99% (Florida Basket) of fruits with internal white tissue regardless of external symptoms. Tomatoes with TIR symptoms rarely ripened to a mature red, and sometimes had empty locules, were smaller in size and were seedless.