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S. Grange, D.I. Leskovar, L. Pike, and G. Cobb

Triploid watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum & Nakai] consumption is increasing in the United States However, some of the original problems, poor and inconsistent germination, still exist. Seeds of several triploid and diploid watermelon cultivars were subjected to a variety of treatments to improve germination. Control and scarified seeds, by nicking, were incubated at 25 or 30 °C in either 5 or 10 mL H2O or hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Triploid seed germination was strongly inhibited in all cultivars when seeds were at 10 mL of H2O or H2O2; both nicking and H2O2 increased germination but not equal to rate of the control in 5 mL H2O or H2O2. Germination of diploid cultivars was unaffected by any treatment. Seed morphological measurments indicated that triploid seed has a smaller embryo with a large and highly variable (cv = 105%) air space surrounding the embryonic axis as compared with the diploid seed. These data suggests that triploid watermelon seed germination is not inhibited by the seed coat thickness alone. Seed moisture plays a significant role in germination, emergence, and stand uniformity.

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S. Grange, D.I. Leskovar, L. Pike, and G. Cobb

Triploid watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum & Nakai] consumption is increasing in the U.S. However, some of the original problems, poor and inconsistent germination, still exist. Seeds of several triploid and diploid watermelon cultivars were subjected to a variety of treatments to improve germination. Control and scarified seeds, by nicking, were incubated at 25 or 30 °C in either 5 or 10 mL H2O or hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Triploid seed germination was strongly inhibited in all cultivars when seeds were at 10 mL of the H2O or H2O2; both nicking and H2O2 increased germination, but not equal to rate of the control in 5 mL H2O or H2O2. Germination of diploid cultivars was unaffected by any treatment. Seed morphological measurments indicated that triploid seed has a smaller embryo with a large and highly variable (CV = 105%) air space surrounding the embryonic axis as compared with the diploid seed. These data suggests that triploid watermelon seed germination is not inhibited by the seedcoat thickness alone. Seed moisture plays a significant role in germination, emergence, and stand uniformity.

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Raymond L. Granger, Y. Groleau, C. Fortin, Gilles L. Rousselle, and L.P.S. Spangelo

`QAS-13' is an advanced apple selection that has a proven performance and is in the process of becoming a new cultivar that carries the Vf gene for resistance to apple scab (Venturia inaequalis Cke. Wint.) derived from `Malus floribunda 821'. It combines field immunity to scab and cold tolerance under Quebec climate and soil conditions. The Ott.521 (Melba x 11-51) x `Spartan' cross was made in Ottawa in 1968. The fruits are very attractive and exhibit a smooth and shiny finish somewhat similar to that of `Spartan'. Their glossy, medium- to dark-red color is slightly striped over a greenish-yellow background and covers up to 85% of the fruit surface. Their picking season coincides with that of `Spartan', which is ≈1 week before that of `Red Delicious'. They are round-oblate to oblate in shape with an average diameter of 70 to 75 mm and weigh ≈140 g/fruit. The skin is smooth, thin, and moderately tough, with widely spaced conspicuous beige lenticels. Both the stem and calyx cavities are fairly deep. The stem resembles that of `McIntosh'. the `QAS-13' apples keep better than `McIntosh' apples both in CA and air storages. Taste panelists have consistently ranked the `QAS-13' apples above `McIntosh' apples both at harvest and after storage. The `QAS-13' trees are less vigorous than those of `McIntosh', but more productive. However, they have exhibited a slight susceptibility to frog eye leaf spot (Botryosphaeria obtusa) similar to that of `McIntosh'.

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Shahrokh Khanizadeh, Johanne Cousineau, Raymond Granger, Yvon Groleau, Gilles Rousselle, and Lloyd P.S. Spangelo

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S. Khanizadeh, Y. Groleau, J.R. DeEll, J. Cousineau, R. Granger, and G. Rousselle

The objectives of the Québec apple breeding program are to develop hardy and disease-resistant varieties for the production of juice and cider and/or varieties with an excellent fruit quality and long shelf-life. Almost 90% of the research in apple breeding is funded by a Partnership Program, in which the partners cover ≈50% of the research costs. The short-term objectives of the program are to evaluate the existing genotypes at the AAFC Frelighsburg sub-station and name worthy selections, remove unworthy material, and transfer potentially interesting genotypes to other AAFC research stations for further evaluations. Three selections—SJC7713-1, SJC686-1, and O-5410—are very hardy, scab-resistant, and have good yields of pleasantly flavored fruit, which can be stored long-term while retaining good quality. Selections SJCA14R3A108 and SJCA36R7A87 are not scab-resistant, but they are hardy, and the fruit have an excellent flavor, store very well for >5 months, and have a flesh that does not darken after cutting. The above selections are currently being evaluated for use by commercial growers. Selections SJC7172-1 and SJC7911-1, along with four crabapple genotypes, are of potential interest to home gardeners.

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S.L. Grange, D.I. Leskovar, L.M. Pike, and B.G. Cobb

Poor and inconsistent germination is a problem in triploid watermelon. Nicking was shown effective in improving germination in triploid cultivars. In this experiment, we examined the effects of high and low medium moisture, and nicking on diploid and triploid seed germination. Germination for the diploid cultivar was unaffected by any treatment. At high moisture conditions, triploid seed germination was severely reduced to less than 15%, while nicking significantly improved germination up to 40%. However, this increase is still not commercially acceptable. When seed morphological components were measured for each cultivar, triploid seeds had a larger and highly variable air space as compared to the diploid seed. The data confirm that seed germination is not inhibited by the seedcoat alone, but appears to be highly sensitive to excessive water conditions.

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Raymond L. Granger, Shahrokh Khanizadeh, Yvon Groleau, Charles N. Fortin, Jules Janick, Joe C. Goffreda, and Schyler S. Korban

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Raymond L. Granger, Shahrokh Khanizadeh, Yvon Groleau, Charles N. Fortin, Gilles L. Rousselle, and Lloyd P.S. Spangelo