Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 12 items for

  • Author or Editor: S. E. Spayd x
Clear All Modify Search
Authors: and

Abstract

Unpeeled or partially peeled apples (Malus domestica Borkh) reduced blanching losses and increased sauce yield. The use of a large screen (0.32 cm) in the pulper increased applesauce yield and improved quality. Applesauce from ‘Golden Delicious’ was superior to sauces from ‘Prime Gold’, ‘Criterion’, and ‘Granny Smith’ apples.

Open Access
Authors: and

Abstract

Fruits of ‘Cardinal’ and A-5344 strawberries (Fragaria X ananassa Duch.) were once-over harvested and sorted into 5 maturity categories: immature green, mature green, inception, firm ripe, and processing ripe. Purees of each maturity were characterized for their potential contribution to the quality of puree obtained from a once-over strawberry harvest. As the berry matured, weight, percent soluble solids, ascorbic acid, and water-soluble pectins increased. Total solids, acidity, total phenols, puree viscosity, cellulose, protopectin, peroxidase activity (PO), and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity decreased with increasing fruit maturity. Presence of chlorophyll, lack of anthocyanins, higher total phenols, and PO and PPO activity found in the green fruits could be potentially detrimental to puree quality. Higher puree viscosity which resulted from higher cellulose and protopectin levels and lower water-soluble pectins in the green berries would be beneficial to strawberry puree quality.

Open Access
Authors: and

Abstract

Purees were prepared from green (G, immature and mature green 1:1) and ripe (R, firm ripe and processing ripe 1:1) fruits of ‘Cardinal’ and A-5344 strawberries (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.). Blends of 25%R + 75%G, 50%R + 50%G, 75%R + 25%G, and 100% R were prepared before and after holding purees at 10, 30 and 50°C for 0, 12, 24 and 36 hours. The decrease in puree color caused by the addition of puree of green fruit to puree of ripe fruit was a dilution effect rather than a synergistic effect, since pures of green and ripe fruits combined after holding were equal in color to purees of comparable proportions of purees of G and R fruits combined before holding. Holding strawberry puree for up to 36 hours at 30° and 50°C increased discoloration and reduced total anthocyanins, pelargonidin-3-monoglucoside content, COM “a”, and visual color. Holding at 50° resulted in the greatest reductions in color.

Open Access
Authors: and

Abstract

When vines of ‘Concord’ (Vitis labrusca, L.) trained to the Geneva Double Curtain were irrigated or pruned to 60+10 nodes/vine, yield was increased with some sacrifice in juice quality, as indicated by lower % soluble solids and poorer juice color. High quality juice was obtained from fruit from 60+10 irrigated vines, the highest yielding treatment, when harvest was delayed 10 to 14 days. Level of nitrogen fertilization did not affect yield, % soluble solids, or juice color. Irrigation was the only experimental variable affecting vine size. High yields from irrigated and 60+10 vines found in this study indicated that the fruiting potential of the ‘Concord’ grapevine in Arkansas has not been fully exploited.

Open Access

Abstract

Highly significant correlations were obtained for reflectance color (Agtron) with anthocyanin content in both fresh and canned dark sweet cherries (Prunus avium L.) and also for both reflectance color and anthocyanin content with subjective USDA color. Soluble solids, titratable acidity, pH, and a soluble solids/titratable acidity ratio were not good indicators of color development in sweet cherries. Reflectance color could be used to predict USDA color from fresh or canned dark sweet cherries.

Open Access

Abstract

‘Bing’ cherries from lightly (LC) and heavily (HC) cropped trees were harvested at weekly intervals, subjected to impact damage (bruising), and stored at 4°C for up to 28 days in 1982 and 12 days in 1983. On a given harvest date, cherries from LC trees were firmer (higher bioyield) and riper, as indicated by higher soluble solids and total anthocyanin concentrations (TAcy) than those from HC trees. At a given color (TAcy) within the range of commercial shipping maturity, cherries from HC trees were more susceptible to bruising, were softer, and had lower concentrations of soluble solids, acid, and dry matter than cherries from LC trees.

Open Access

Abstract

Succinic acid-2, 2-dimethylhydrazide (daminozide), at rates of 0, 1000, and 2000 ppm, was applied between first and peak bloom to 2 adjacent ‘Concord’ (Vitus labrusca L.) vineyards: a 9-year-old vineyard with a histoty of good fruit set and a 19-year-old vineyard with a history of poor fruit set. No significant yield increase was obtained in the young vineyard, but there was a tendency for lower soluble solids and poorer juice color due to daminozide. Yields were increased by 2.4 and 3.3 MT/ha by 1000 and 2000 ppm daminozide, respectively, in the older vineyard with no significant effect on juice quality. The one-year increase in yield of grapes in the older vineyard was accompanied by a reduction in vine size.

Open Access

Abstract

Horseradish peroxidase (PO) and mushroom polyphenol oxidase (PPO) were added to strawberry purees from ‘Cardinal’ and Arkansas breeding-line 5344 to determine their influence on color during 48 hours at 30°C. Neither enzyme affected strawberry puree color or phenolic content. PO activity was reduced to near zero 24 hours after addition and PPO activity was undetectable 1 hour after addition to puree. Aeration did not affect anthocyanin and flavonoid concentrations, but increased discoloration and nonflavonoid concentration. Strawberry purees containing 50% immature plus 50% ripe fruits were poorer in color and had higher levels of flavonoids. As holding time at 30°C increased, puree color decreased.

Open Access

Abstract

Under commercial conditions at harvest, mechanically harvested blackberries (Rubus sp.) had raw and processed quality comparable to hand-picked fruits regardless of berry temperature. However, during storage, berries machine-harvested at high temperature (36°C) deteriorated more rapidly than hand-picked berries at the same temperature. Storage of machine-harvested fruit in 20% and 40% CO2 at 20° for up to 48 hours maintained raw and processed quality. When mold counts were not excessive, the use of flavoring ingredients in the processed product resulted in acceptable products despite unacceptable raw product quality from some treatments. Use of high CO2 storage atmospheres with fruit held at 20° partially offset the need for refrigeration to reduce postharvest quality loss.

Open Access

Abstract

Four of 7 strawberry (Fragaria X ananassa Duch.) clones tested did not benefit in total yield from 1 or 2 hand pickings prior to once-over machine harvest. Four of the clones could be hand picked once without a significant reduction in machine harvested yields. Two clones were low yielding regardless of the harvest method. ‘Sunrise’, a high once-over yielding clone, increased in total yield with hand harvesting but fruit were soft and poorly colored and lacked good field holding and in-plant handling capabilities. ‘Cardinal’ represented a clone with fruit quality and a ripening pattern suitable to a combination of hand and machine harvesting. Fruit remaining on the plants after 1 or 2 hand harvests had a higher percentage of ripe fruit in the once-over harvest than machine harvested fruit not preceded by a hand harvest. The composite once-over machine harvested fruit after 1 or 2 hand pickings showed the same or higher soluble solids, shear press firmness, puree viscosity and color intensity as hand harvested fruit. In clones with high quality fruit, the presence of immature fruit in the onceover harvest did not detract from puree color or flavor acceptability. Selection A-5344 possessed both yield and quality characteristics desired for a completely mechanized harvest for processing.

Open Access