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The vase life of cut sunflowers given a simulated transport period (3 days dry storage at 8C) was significantly enhanced by a l-hour pulse with 0.01% Triton X-100 administered before storage. The Triton pulse increased solution uptake during the l-hour pulse, decreased fresh weight loss during dry storage, and significantly improved water uptake thereafter, resulting in greater leaf turgidity and longer vase life. Leaf stomata] conductance measurements indicated that Triton X-100 maintained stomatal opening at a higher level during the pulse and after storage, but had no effect during dry storage. Chemical name used: octylphenoxypolyethoxyethanol (Triton X-100).

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The opening and senescence of gladiolus (Gladiolus sp.) florets was accompanied by climacteric or nonclimacteric patterns of respiration and ethylene production, depending on variety, and whether data were expressed on a fresh-weight or floret basis. A climacteric pattern of ethylene production by the youngest buds on the spike (which never opened) was stimulated by cool storage, and was not affected by holding the spikes in a preservative solution containing sucrose. Ethylene treatment had no effect on senescence of the florets of any of the cultivars tested. Pulse treatment of the spikes with silver thiosulfate (STS) improved floret opening but not the life of individual florets. Sucrose and STS had similar but not synergistic effects on floret opening, suggesting that STS improves flower opening in gladiolus by overcoming the effects of carbohydrate depletion.

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Abstract

In the paper “Factors Affecting the Recovery of Juice and Anthocyanin from Cranberries” by G.M. Sapers, S.B. Jones, and G.T. Maher [J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 108(2):246–249, 1983], there is an error in the magnification in the Fig. 1 legend. The correct version of the legend is as follows:

Open Access

Abstract

Factors affecting anthocyanin recovery in juice from pressed cranberries (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) were investigated under laboratory conditions. Anthocyanin recovery was unaffected by cultivar, total anthocyanin content, or juice yield. Variability in anthocyanin recovery was attributed to the heterogeneity of berry samples analyzed for total and juice anthocyanin and to differences in the efficiency of pigment extraction by juice liberated during pressing. Freeze-thaw treatment of cranberries increased juice yield by as much as 50% and juice anthocyanin content by as much as 15-fold. Microscopic observation of changes at the cellular level resulting from freeze-thaw treatment supported the juice yield and pigment recovery data. Anthocyanin recovery could be increased by double pressing and by tissue homogenization.

Open Access

Abstract

Sprays of ammonium ethyl carbamoyl-phosphonoate (Krenite), applied to the tops of mature Lisbon lemon trees [Citrus limon (L). Burml.] resulted in significant inhibition of re-growth for over 3 years. One spray increased yield over the control trees (hand topped annually), while 2 sprays reduced yield. The sprays did not effect the N concentration in the leaves.

Open Access

Crosses were made between tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) inbreds susceptible to races T2 and T3 of bacterial spot (Xanthomonas vesicatoria and Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria, respectively) and accession PI 114490 with resistance to races T1, T2, and T3. Resistance to race T2 was analyzed using the parents, F1, and F2 generations from one of the crosses. The F1 was intermediate between the parents for disease severity suggesting additive gene action. The segregation of F2 progeny fit a two-locus model (χ2 = 0.96, P = 0.9-0.5) where four resistance alleles are required for a high resistance level, two or three resistance alleles provide intermediate resistance, and zero or one resistance allele results in susceptibility. The narrow sense heritability of resistance to T2 strains was estimated to be 0.37 ± 0.1 based on F2 to F3 parent-offspring regression. A second cross was developed into an inbred backcross (IBC) population to facilitate multilocation replicated testing with multiple races. Segregation for T2 resistance in the inbred backcross population also suggested control was by two loci, lending support to the two-locus model hypothesized based on the F2 segregation. To determine if the same loci conferred resistance to the other races, selections for race T2 resistance were made in the F2 and F3 generations and for race T3 resistance in the F2 through F4 generations. Six T3 selections (F5), 13 T2 selections (F4's that diverged from seven F2 selections), and control lines were then evaluated for disease severity to races T1, T2, and T3 over two seasons. Linear correlations were used to estimate the efficiency of selecting for resistance to multiple races based on a disease nursery inoculated with a single race. Race T1 and race T2 disease severities were correlated (r ≥ 0.80, P< 0.001) within and between years while neither was correlated to race T3 either year. These results suggest that selecting for race T2 resistance in progeny derived from crosses to PI 114490 would be an effective strategy to obtain resistance to both race T1 and T2 in the populations tested. In contrast, selection for race T3 or T2 will be less likely to result in lines with resistance to the other race. PI 114490 had less resistance to T3 than to T2 or T1. Independent segregation of T2 and T3 resistance from the IBC population derived from PI 114490 suggests that T3 resistance is not controlled by the same genes as T2 resistance, supporting the linear correlation data.

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Abstract

Increases in the darkness and redness of both thawed and cooked highbush blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L.), indicated by tristimulus measurements, were cultivar-related but not dependent on blueberry pH or anthocyanin content. Waxy bloom was retained in thawed berries but lost during cooking. Pigmented exudate appeared with some cultivars during thawing. Differences among cultivars in exudate formation and reddening during thawing are explained in terms of changes in epidermal cells, cuticle, and wax structure which were observed by light and electron microscopy. The color of blueberry cooking water depended primarily on the berry anthocyanin content, acidity, and the extent of leaching.

Open Access

Petal opening and senescence of cut Gladiolus, Iris, and Narcissus flowers was significantly inhibited by continuous treatment with 1 mm CHI. Vase life was doubled in individual flowers treated when half-open, and a similar effect was detected after pulsing cut gladiolus spikes with 1 mm CHI for 24 hours. Petal wilting was markedly inhibited in flowers treated with CHI and was confined to the outer 2 to 3 mm of petal margins as opposed to the entire petal in untreated flowers. These effects were not seen, however, in CHI-treated cut tulip flowers, where vase life was significantly reduced. CHI markedly inhibited protein synthesis in Gladiolus `New Rose' florets (a decrease of >60%). Treatment with a potent biocide, DICA, did not increase vase life; therefore, CHI was not prolonging flower longevity by preventing microbial growth in the vase solution. The results indicate that de novo protein synthesis is required for bulb flower development and opening and petal wilting and senescence. Chemical names used: cycloheximide (CHI), sodium dichloroisocyanuric acid (DICA).

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