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  • Author or Editor: S. A. Mehlenbacher x
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Interspecific hybridization, pollen-stigma incompatibility, and DNA sequence analysis were used to study the relationships among hazelnut (Corylus) species. Interspecific crosses resulted in a wide range of cluster set from 0% to 65%. Reciprocal differences were common. In general, crosses involving C. avellana and C. heterophylla were more successful when used as pollen parents, but crosses involving C. americana were more successful when it was the female parent. C. cornuta, C. californica and C. sieboldiana intercrossed freely in both directions, as did C.colurna and C.chinensis. The Asian species, C. sieboldiana, C.heteropyhlla, and C. chinensis, were not cross-compatible with each other. Fluorescence microscopy showed that pollen-stigma incompatibility exists within and among wild hazelnut species, in addition to the cultivated European hazelnut C. avellana. Pollen-stigma incompatibility and embryo abortion (blank nuts) appear to be major blocks to interspecific gene flow. In addition, the chloroplast matK gene and the Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) region of the nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA) were amplified and sequenced. The matK sequence was highly conserved and thus was not informative. However, the ITS sequence was highly informative and parsimony analysis agreed with morphological similarities. Corylus species were placed into four groups: 1) C. avellana, C. maxima, C. americana and C. heterophylla 2) C. colurna, C.chinensis, and C. jacquemontii 3) C. cornuta, C. californica and C. sieboldiana 4)C. ferox.

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Abstract

Six genotypes of apple with a range in bloom date of 18 days were used to determine the contribution of the postdormant heat requirement to time of flowering. Spurs containing flower buds were collected after the chilling requirement had been satisfied but before detectable bud growth had begun, and forced at 10°, 15°, or 20°C. Bud development occurred on all samples at 20°, although at different rates which were correlated directly with field bloom date. At 10°, the genotypes fell into 2 groups. The first, consisting of the 3 earliest flowering selections, developed more slowly at 10° than at 20°. The 2nd, consisting of the 3 latest flowering selections, did not grow at all at 10°. The data suggest that late flowering in apple results from high heat and high minimum temperature requirements for bud growth, not from high chilling requirement.

Open Access

Hazelnuts, (Corylus avellana L.), are wind-pollinated, monoecious, mostly dichogamous, and self-incompatible. About 90% of the cultivars studied are protandrous. Anthesis of the pistillate flower is temperature-dependent and occurs December through February, peaking in January. Stigmatic surfaces may remain receptive for up to 3 months. Four to 5 months separate pollination and fertilization of the ovule; the latter usually occurring between mid-May and the end of June in Oregon. A 10% pollinizer density has been the standard, with a recommended distance of 66 ft (20 m) or less between the main cultivar and the nearest pollinizer. Two or three different pollinizer cultivars, with different times of pollen shed, are recommended. The Oregon hazelnut industry is presently combating the fungal disease, eastern filbert blight, caused by Anisogramma anomala (Peck). Current management recommendations suggest reducing risk of infection are to reduce the most susceptible pollinizer cultivars to a density 5%, then gradually replace those left with immune or more resistant genotypes.

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Abstract

‘Jerseyglo’ is a large, firm yellow-fleshed freestone peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] for the fresh market. The fruit ripens with ‘Jerseyqueen’, ‘Redskin’, and ‘Elberta’. It was named and released in 1979 in order to provide a large, attractive, firm-fleshed peach in this season with moderate levels of flower bud hardiness and resistance to bacterial spot [Xanthomonas campestris pv. pruni (Smith) Young et at.]. ‘Jerseyglo’ is recommended as a replacement for ‘Jerseyqueen’.

Open Access

Abstract

‘Summerglo’ is a large, yellow-fleshed freestone peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] for the fresh market. The fruit ripens approximately one week after ‘Redhaven’. It was named and released in 1978 to meet the need for a large peach in this season. ‘Summerglo’ leaves and fruit are susceptible to bacterial spot [Xanthomonas campestris pv. pruni (Smith) Young et al.]. Flower bud hardiness is similar to or slightly better than ‘Loring’.

Open Access

Three microsatellite-enriched libraries of the european hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) were constructed: library A for CA repeats, library B for GA repeats, and library C for GAA repeats. Twenty-five primer pairs amplified easy-to-score single loci and were used to investigate polymorphism among 20 C. avellana genotypes and to evaluate cross-species amplification in seven Corylus L. species. Microsatellite alleles were estimated by fluorescent capillary electrophoresis fragment sizing. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 12 (average = 7.16) in C. avellana and from 5 to 22 overall (average = 13.32). With the exception of CAC-B110, di-nucleotide SSRs were characterized by a relatively large number of alleles per locus (≥5), high average observed and expected heterozygosity (Ho and He > 0.6), and a high mean polymorphic information content (PIC ≥ 0.6) in C. avellana. In contrast, tri-nucleotide microsatellites were more homozygous (Ho = 0.4 on average) and less informative than di-nucleotide simple sequence repeats (SSRs) as indicated by a lower mean number of alleles per locus (4.5), He (0.59), and PIC (0.54). Cross-species amplification in Corylus was demonstrated. These microsatellite markers were highly heterozygous and polymorphic and differentiated among genotypes of C. avellana irrespective of geographical origin. They will aid in fingerprinting genotypes of the european hazelnut and other Corylus species, genome mapping, and genetic diversity assessments.

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Resistant cultivars are a promising disease control method for eastern filbert blight, which is devastating hazelnut production in Oregon. In 1990, two studies were begun to evaluate the relative resistance of European hazelnut (Coyhls avellana) genotypes to the causal fungus, Anisogramma anomala. A randomized block design of 40 genotypes was planted using inoculated trees planted in the borders as the disease source. The first- and second-year disease incidence (percent) were compared to the published disease incidence (percent) based on exposing potted trees of 44 genotypes to high doses of inoculum. Disease incidence was significantly correlated between the two studies in 1991 (r =0.41, P = 0.02) and in 1992 (r =0.64, P = 0.001; rs = 0.35, 0.025 < P < 0.050). Three genotypes, however, showed no disease in the field, but they had disease in >70% of the potted tree study. A plot of disease incidence in the field planting indicates that the inoculum was present throughout the blocks.

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Eastern filbert blight (EFB), caused by the fungus Anisogramma anomala, is a primary limitation to european hazelnut (Corylus avellana) cultivation in eastern North America. American hazelnut (Corylus americana) is the endemic host of A. anomala and, despite its tiny, thick-shelled nuts, is a potentially valuable source of EFB resistance and climatic adaptation. Interspecific hybrids (Corylus americana × C. avellana) have been explored for nearly a century as a means to combine EFB resistance with wider adaptability and larger nuts. Although significant progress was made in the past, the genetic diversity of the starting material was limited and additional improvements are needed for expansion of hazelnut (Corylus sp.) production outside of Oregon, where 99% of the U.S. crop is currently produced. Our objective was to determine if C. americana can be a donor of EFB resistance. We crossed 29 diverse EFB-resistant C. americana accessions to EFB-susceptible C. avellana selections (31 total progenies) to produce 2031 F1 plants. In addition, new C. americana germplasm was procured from across the native range of the species. The new collection of 1335 plants from 122 seed lots represents 72 counties and 22 states. The interspecific hybrid progenies and a subset of the American collection (616 trees from 62 seed lots) were field planted and evaluated for EFB response following field inoculations and natural disease spread over seven growing seasons. EFB was rated on a scale of 0 (no EFB) to 5 (all stems containing cankers). Results showed that progeny means of the interspecific hybrids ranged from 0.96 to 4.72. Fourteen of the 31 progenies were composed of at least one-third EFB-free or highly tolerant offspring (i.e., ratings 0–2), transmitting a significant level of resistance/tolerance. Several corresponding C. americana accessions that imparted a greater degree of resistance to their hybrid offspring were also identified. In addition, results showed that 587 (95.3%) of the 616 C. americana plants evaluated remained completely free of EFB. These findings confirm reports that the species rarely expresses signs or symptoms of the disease and should be robustly studied and exploited in breeding.

Open Access

Abstract

‘McShay’ is an attractive, excellent quality apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) with field immunity to apple scab. The fruit is similar in color, flavor, and texture to ‘McIntosh’. ‘McShay’ is named in honor of the late J. Ralph Shay and is a late fall dessert apple well-adapted to Oregon's Willamette Valley. ‘McShay’ is the ninth cultivar to be released by the cooperative apple breeding program of Indiana, Illinois, and New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Stations.

Open Access