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  • Author or Editor: Ronald Strahan x
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Selective broadleaf weed control is a major economic issue facing commercial landscapers and homeowners alike. Minimal selective post-emergent weed research has been successful in controlling landscape weeds. The objectives of this experiment were to determine the efficacy of seven selective broadleaf herbicides [nicosulfuron (0.66 oz/acre), flumioxazin (8 oz/acre), penoxsulam (2.3 fl oz/acre), bensulfuron (1.66 oz/acre), glyphosate (1% by volume), sulfentrazone (8 fl oz/acre), trifloxysulfuron (0.56 oz/acre) and the control] and to determine the ornamental phytotoxicity on three groundcover species (Liriope muscari, Ophiopogon japonicus, and Trachelospermum asiaticum). A RCBD design was used with five blocks. Each block was split establishing either mulched or bare soil plots (nonmulched). The ground-covers were established three months before herbicide application. On 29 June 2005, four weed species were evenly seeded into the blocks with one hundred seeds each of Sesbania exaltata, Ipomea hederacea, Amaranthus retroflexus, and Euphorbia maculata. Herbicides were applied using a CO2 backpack type sprayer on 6 Sept. 2005. Plant and weed control data were taken to evaluate phytotoxicity and efficacy at 0, 1, 7, 14, and 28 DAT. On 27 Oct. 2005, weeds were harvested from each plot and dried for a minimum of 48 h and weighed. No significant differences in phytotoxicity were observed on either Liriope muscari or Trachelospermum asiaticum. However, there was a significant increase in phytotoxicity exhibited by the Ophiopogon japonicus treated with sulfentrazone compared to all of the other herbicides. Glyphosate demonstrated the best overall control of all broadleaf weeds except Sesbania, while trifloxysulfuron showed the best control of Sesbania. There were no significant differences in herbicide efficacy between the mulched and nonmulched plots. Further research is being done to measure the effects of herbicide efficacy and phytotoxicity in 2006.

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Yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus) is one of the most troublesome and widespread perennial weeds infesting landscape plantings in the United States. Few selective herbicides are available for managing this weed. A combination of organic mulch with preemergence herbicide may improve control efficacy at tuber emergence and reduce the need for subsequent postemergence applications. However, limited information is available on potential interactions between herbicide placement and mulching and their effect on yellow nutsedge control and landscape plant growth and quality. In this study, control efficacy of preemergence herbicide s-ethyl dipropylthiocarbamate (EPTC) applied at 0, 4, or 6 lb/acre above or under pine straw, pine nuggets, or shredded cypress mulches were evaluated in landscape beds infested with yellow nutsedge and planted with ‘Mystery’ gardenia (Gardenia jasminoides), ‘Stella de Oro’ daylily (Hemerocallis), and ‘Big Blue’ liriope (Liriope muscari). Pine nuggets provided greater yellow nutsedge control compared with shredded cypress during the first 6 weeks after treatment (WAT) in mulch-alone plots. All mulch-alone plots had similar yellow nutsedge shoot densities and were 40% to 60% less than untreated bare soil plots from 6 to 12 WAT. Control efficacy was greater when EPTC was applied under mulch compared with above-mulch applications regardless of mulch products. In addition, EPTC at low rate resulted in similar control as high rate when applied under mulch. No injury was observed on any ornamental plants treated with EPTC. Mulching improved growth, flowering, and overall visual quality of gardenia, but reduced number of flowers in daylily and aboveground biomass in liriope at some sample dates though their visual qualities were unaffected. Based on these preliminary data, EPTC applied preemergence before mulching a new landscape bed or replenishing an existing bed can improve yellow nutsedge control without injuring selected ornamental plants.

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