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  • Author or Editor: Ronald Snyder x
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Two management systems were initiated in a 10 year old Juglans regia cv. Hartley orchard planted 8 m. × 8 m. in 1977. Annual dormant selective pruning was practiced for the next 8 years on all trees within one treatment (pruning) compared to dormant severe pruning on alternate temporary trees with no pruning on adjacent permanent trees (thinning). Temporary trees were removed in the thinning treatment in 1985.

Yield, trunk cross sectional area, pruning weight and nut quality factors were evaluated each year from the 5 replicate, completely randomized trial.

Yield and nut quality factors did not differ between the two treatments during the 15 years.

In 1990 the pruned trial was again pruned causing a 20% drop in production (p=.06). With no additional pruning yield returned to slightly above the thinned treatment in 1991.

This trial demonstrates that Hartley walnut trees (terminal bearing habit) continue to produce satisfactory crops under crowded canopy management but a tree thinning program offers other advantages which also should be considered.

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Three selections from different bud sources of Bartlett pear were planted in a split block experiment grafted to five rootstocks in 1971. In 1992 and 1993, significant yield and yield efficiency differences occurred between the three selections. The highest yielding selection produced 51 and 40% greater weight then the lowest. The lowest yielding selection also had smaller fruit and lower soluble solids.

Differences of 37 and 52% occurred between the highest and lowest yielding rootstocks. There were also significant differences in trunk cross sectional area, yield efficiency. fruit pressure and soluble solids between rootstocks.

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The variation in polyunsaturated fatty acid content of walnut (Juglans regia L.) oils was determined by analysis of samples isolated from specimens growing in four germplasm collections [California (55 cultivars), Washington (64 seedlings), China (12 cultivars), and France (20 cultivars)]. In addition, the impact of within-state geographic differences on oil composition was examined by comparing samples from three California cultivars (`Ashley', `Hartley', and `Franquette') grown in three locations. Local environmental effects on oil composition of `Chico' were also examined by comparing 1) samples collected from shaded and sun-exposed locations of the same trees and 2) samples collected from trees subjected to three irrigation regimes. Polyunsaturated fatty acid content, as a percentage of total fatty acids, ranged from 47.2% in nuts from PI 142323 from France to 81.0% in `Ashley' from California. However, our data indicate that environment, genotype, nut maturity, and their interactions all contribute significantly to variation in the degree of unsaturation of walnut oil.

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