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  • Author or Editor: Ronald C. Smith x
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Abstract

Landscape design, landscape construction, landscape maintenance, and landscape irrigation projects require an accurate bidding/estimating procedure for effective cost controls and profit generation. Everything entering into the bid price must end up on a spreadsheet to determine the final figures, including an estimate of profit. As one of the last phases of the bidding process, the spreadsheet calculations are a constant source of potential error in figure transposition, miscalculation, or omission, which could lead to profit loss or to the nonawarding of a project in a competitive bidding situation. Powerful electronic spreadsheets are available for use on microcomputers, but few are used in the industry due to their high cost, the generic nature of the spreadsheet programs, and the unavailability of spreadsheets specifically constructed for bidding. Additionally, electronic spreadsheets generally require formatting with appropriate equations before they can be used (1).

Open Access

Abstract

With thousands of species and named cultivars to choose, it is a challenge to select appropriate plants for landscape applications (3). Selections of annual and perennial plants with specific pictorial characteristics (color, height, longevity, and blooming period), water requirements, and propagation methods can be time-consuming.

Open Access

Abstract

Environmental concerns and disadvantages of synthetic insecticides have stimulated interest in natural chemicals derived from plants for insect control. Extracts from seeds of the neem tree (Azidirachta indica A. Juss) have attracted attention as an insecticide not only because of its broad spectrum action, but also because it has demonstrated uncommon safety to man and warm-blooded animals and the environment (Henkes, 1986). Furthermore, neem extract has been reported to act systemically to effectively control serpentine leafminer (Liromyza trifolii Burgess), a serious pest on ornamentals and vegetables due mainly to pesticide resistance (Larew et al., 1984; Lindquist et al., 1986; Stein and Parrella, 1985; Webb et al., 1983). Larew et al. (1984) demonstrated that neem soil drenches provided systemic control of L. trifolii for up to 3 weeks. Lindquist et al. (1986) investigated the use of neem insecticide (Margosan-O) as a preshipping crop treatment by soaking bare root cuttings in neem solutions. Their 2- to 4-hr soaks (3.0% Margosan-O) effectively controlled leafminers for 4 weeks. The objective of this study was to determine if a simple in-transit application method could provide control of serpentine leafminers on chrysanthemum.

Open Access

Abstract

Vegetative and fruiting shoots were tagged in Oct. 1982 and 1983 on ‘Squirrel’, ‘Stuart’, and ‘Cape Fear’ pecan trees [Carya illinoensis (Wangenh) C. Koch], and flowering was determined the following years. One-year-old shoots were sampled from vegetative and fruiting shoots of each cultivar on 14 Oct. 1982, 9 Feb., 11 Apr., 14 Oct., and 24 Nov. 1983, and 6 Jan. and 17 Apr. 1984 and analyzed for reducing and nonreducing sugars and starch concentrations. Fruiting reduced return bloom of ‘Cape Fear’ in 1983 and 1984, and ‘Stuart’ in 1983. Sugar and starch concentrations varied inversely. Sugar concentrations were increased in November, January, and February, and starch concentrations were greatest during October and April. The total carbohydrate concentration in fruiting shoots of each cultivar was greater or equal to that of vegetative shoots in all but one instance. The degree of return fruiting was positively associated with cultivars with early fruit ripening dates.

Open Access

Seeds of a Kentucky bluegrass cultivar (Poa pratensis 'SD Common') and two native buffalograss (Buchloe dactyloides) strains, Texas (TX) selection and North Dakota (ND) selection, were tested for their germination tolerance to increasing levels of NaCl at 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.2, 1.6, 2.0, 2.4, 2.8, 3.2% in solution. Both the TX and ND strains of buffalograss exhibited a high degree of salt tolerance with the upper limit of seed germination at 2.8% NaCl (2% to 7% germination after 6 days). At high NaCl concentrations, however, percent seed germination was much greater in the ND strain than the TX strain of buffalograss. For instance, seed germination at 0.8% NaCl was 90% in ND strain and 53% in TX strain as compared to the control. Kentucky bluegrass was least tolerant to NaCl with the upper limit of seed germination at 0.4% NaCl (14.7% germination in 6 days). Seed germination in Kentucky bluegrass was completely inhibited at 0.6% NaCl.

Free access