Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) fruits, cv. Solarset, were harvested at the mature-green stage and treated with 50 μL/L ethylene at 20C. Breaker fruits (<10% red coloration) were dropped from 40 cm onto a smooth, solid surface and held along with undropped fruits at 20°C and 85% relative humidity. At table-ripe stage, pericarp, placental, and locular tissue were individually excised and analyzed for total carotenoids, total soluble sugars, soluble solids content, titratable acidity, density (locule tissue), polygalacturonase activity, and electrolyte efflux (pericarp tissue). Internal bruising caused by impact forces significantly affected pericarp and locule tissues, but not placental tissue. For bruised locule tissue, total carotenoids content decreased by 37.1%, vitamin C content by 15.6%, and titratable acidity by 15.3% as compared to control. However, density was increased by 3.0%. For bruised pericarp tissue, vitamin C content decreased by 16.5%, while polygalacturonase activity and electrolyte efflux increased by 33.3% and 24.8%, respectively. The development of abnormal ripening following an impact was confined to locule and pericarp tissues and appears to be related to the disruption of cellular structure and stimulation of enzymic activity.
Celso L. Moretti, Steven A. Sargent, Donald J. Huber and Rolf Puschmann
Celso L. Moretti, Steven A. Sargent, Donald J. Huber, Adonai G. Calbo and Rolf Puschmann
`Solar Set' tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) were harvested at the mature-green stage of development and treated with 50 μL·L-1 ethylene at 20 °C. Breaker-stage fruit were dropped from 40 cm onto a solid surface to induce internal bruising and held along with undropped fruit at 20 °C. At the ripe stage, pericarp, locule, and placental tissues were analyzed for soluble sugars, vitamin C, pigments, titratable acidity, soluble solids content, pericarp electrolyte leakage, extractable polygalacturonase activity, and locule tissue consistency. Bruising significantly affected chemical composition and physical properties of pericarp and locule tissues, but not placental tissue. For bruised locule tissue, carotenoids, vitamin C, and titratable acidity were 37%, 15%, and 15%, lower, respectively, than unbruised fruit. For bruised pericarp tissue, vitamin C content was 16% lower than for unbruised tissue, whereas bruising increased electrolyte leakage and extractable polygalacturonase activity by 25% and 33%, respectively. Evidence of abnormal ripening following impact bruising was confined to locule and pericarp tissues and may be related to the disruption of cell structure and altered enzyme activity.