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- Author or Editor: Robert Saftner x
The effects of harvest-applied coating and shrink-wrap polymeric film treatments of apples [Malus ×domestica Borkh. `Gala' and Mansf. `Golden Delicious'] on volatile levels, quality attributes, respiration, and internal atmospheres after storage at 0 °C for 1 to 6 months, and during subsequent shelf life at 20 °C were investigated. Over 30 volatiles were detected, most of the identified volatiles were esters, the rest were alcohols, aldehydes, a ketone and a sesquiterpene. Shellac- and wax-based fruit coatings transiently inhibited total volatile levels in `Golden Delicious' while not affecting those in `Gala' apples during 6 months of storage in air at 0 °C. Holding fruit at 20 °C for up to three weeks following cold storage increased volatile levels with coated and nontreated fruit having similar amounts. Only shellac-coated `Golden Delicious' apples accumulated ethanol and ethyl acetate when held at 20 °C. The shrink-wrap polymeric film treatment had no effect on fruit volatile levels during cold storage or during subsequent shelf life at 20 °C. Coating but not film treatments reduced respiration and ethylene production rates that were observed upon transferring the fruit to 20 °C. Internal CO2 and ethylene levels increased and O2 levels decreased in coated fruit. The coating treatments led to better retention of flesh firmness in `Golden Delicious' but not `Gala' apples. Coating and film treatments reduced fresh weight loss in both cultivars during cold storage. The results suggest that harvest-applied coating and film treatments having relatively high permeability for CO2 and O2 and relatively low permeability for water vapor and fruit volatiles have potential for improving the storage and shelf-life qualities of `Gala' and `Golden Delicious' apples.
The ethylene precursor, 1 -aminocyclopropane- 1 -carboxylic acid (ACC), is actively transported across the tonoplast of plant cells, impacting cellular compartmentation of ACC and ethylene biosynthesis. To identify potential photoaffinity probes for identifying ACC transport-related membrane proteins, the effects of over 70 ACC and other amino acid analogs on ACC uptake into isolated maize vacuoles were investigated. Only relatively nonpolar, neutral amino acid stereoisomers of L-configuration were strong inhibitors of ACC transport. Group additions, substitutions, or deletions at the carboxyl, (x-amino and the Pro-(R) methylene, or hydrogen moieties essentially eliminated transport inhibition, whereas side-chain substitutions remained antagonistic. The kinetics of ACC and neutral L-amino acid analogs tested were competitive. The results indicate that the ACC transport system can be classified as a neutral L-amino acid carrier having a relatively high affinity for ACC and other nonpolar amino acids. The results also suggest that the carrier interacts with the carboxyl, alpha-amino, and Pro-(R) groups and the side chain of substrate amino acids. Based on these findings, potential photoaffinity probes of the ACC transport system have been identified.
A calcium ascorbate processing formulation is commercially used to prevent browning on fresh-cut apple slices but has little to no antimicrobial activity. Intact apples were surface-sanitized with chlorine water at 20 °C or water at 60 °C, processed into fresh-cut slices, and the slices dipped in a calcium ascorbate formulation or a solution of isoascorbic acid, calcium, and N-acetylcysteine at pH 2.0. The commercial and experimental dip treatments similarly maintained cut surface color, Kramer firmness, and aromatic volatile concentrations during 3 weeks of storage at 5 °C in air. Freshly prepared experimental dip treatment reduced the native bacterial population of the apple slices prepared from sanitized apples better than the calcium ascorbate treatment. With repeated use, the experimental dip solution became adulterated with apple tissue and juice and rapidly lost its antibacterial activity. Concomitantly the pH of the dip solution increased to 2.6 or higher. The lost antibacterial activity could be restored in highly contaminated experimental dip solutions by back titrating to pH 2.0. The experimental dip treatment also reduced the overall yeast and mold population, but specifically enhanced growth of Penicilliumexpansum on slices prepared from chlorine-sanitized apples. A hot water pretreatment of intact apples at 60 °C for 3 min prior to fresh-cut processing essentially eliminated P. expansum contamination on the slices. The results indicate that the experimental dip treatment is a promising alternative to calcium ascorbate treatment for analytical and microbial quality retention of fresh-cut apple slices during storage, especially when the apple slices are processed from hot water-treated apples.
A new hybrid orange-fleshed netted melon has been bred specifically for use by the fresh-cut industry in winter. Quality characteristics of fresh-cut chunks from the hybrid were compared to those of its parental lines and to commercial cantaloupe and honeydew fruits available in winter. Female parent and hybrid chunks had higher soluble solids content (SSC) and firmness, and lower aromatic volatile concentrations versus that of the male parent. Hybrid chunks also had higher SSC (>3%) and were firmer (>5 N) than commercial fruit, and showed no appreciable differences in aromatic volatile concentrations to commercial honeydew or in surface color to commercial cantaloupe. Consumers liked the flavor, texture, sweetness, and overall eating quality of the hybrid chunks better than those of its inbred parents and winter honeydew and as well as or better than that of winter cantaloupe. Hybrid fruit stored 5 weeks at 1 °C under modified atmospheric conditions, then fresh-cut and stored 14 d in air at 5 °C maintained good quality (firmness = 51 N, SSC = 12.2%, surface pH = 6.0, beta-carotene and ascorbic acid concentrations = 14 and 182 mg·kg-1, respectively), and showed no signs of tissue translucency or surface pitting despite microbial populations approaching 8 log cfu·g-1. The results indicate that the orange-fleshed hybrid melon is a promising new melon type for fresh-cut processing, especially during the winter.
`Golden Delicious' apples were pressure-infiltrated (34 kPa) at harvest with 0, 20, 35, or 50 g·L–1 solutions of CaCl2 followed without and with a water rinse, a wax or shellac emulsion treatment, or a shrink-wrap packaging, and stored at 0°C. The CaCl2 treatments delayed senescent breakdown, but also caused superficial injury to the fruit. A water rinse in combination with a wax- or shellac-based coating or shrink wrap packaging reduced the appearance of superficial injury in fruit treated with 35 or 50 g·L–1 solutions of CaCl2 and eliminated it in fruit treated with a 20 g·L–1 solution of CaCl2. While reducing the risk of calcium-related injury to the fruit, the coating and film treatments maintained the beneficial effects of calcium on apples and reduced weight loss of the fruit during cold storage.
Three polyamine biosynthesis inhibitors, α-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO), α-difluoromethylarginine (DFMA), and α-methylornithine (MeOrn), alone and in combination with CaCl2, were tested for their ability to reduce in vitro growth and soft rot development in apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) fruit caused by Botrytis cinerea Pers.:Fr. and Penicillium expansum Link. All three inhibitors reduced the in vitro growth of the pathogens. Calcium had no effect on fungal growth in vitro. Pressure infiltration of millimolar concentrations of DFMO or DFMA or 25 g·L-1 CaCl2 solutions into apples reduced subsequent soft rot development by B. cinerea and P. expansum >40%. A combination treatment of Ca and DFMO or DFMA reduced decay >67%. Treatment of apples with MeOrn was less effective at inhibiting decay development. None of the inhibitors affected polyamine levels in apple cortical tissues. Some injury to the fruit surface was observed with Ca treatments. Fruit treated with Ca and any of the inhibitors were less firm than those treated with Ca alone. Specific polyamine biosynthesis inhibitors in combination with Ca may prove useful in reducing postharvest decay in apples.
Fruit of highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) produce antimicrobial volatiles, including trans-2-hexenal, that may confer resistance to anthracnose fruit rot, an important postharvest disease caused by Colletotrichum acutatum J.H. Simmonds. To investigate whether aromatic volatiles in highbush blueberry fruit are associated with postharvest fruit rot resistance, we compared volatiles emitted from whole fruit and extracts from fruit kept in air at 20 °C for 0 to 6 days postharvest from cultivars having a wide range of resistance to anthracnose. Antimicrobial volatiles detected included the aldehydes, trans-2-hexenal and hexanal; the monoterpenes, limonene, linalool, 8-hydroxylinalool, α-terpineol, and terpinyl acetate; and the sesquiterpenes, cadinene, caryophyllene, and α-farnesene. There were significant correlations between some detected volatiles and these differed in whole fruit and extracts. Hexanal (in fruit extracts), trans-2-hexenal, terpinyl acetate, and cadinene emissions increased in most cultivars when fruit were kept in air at 20 °C for various times postharvest. Volatile emissions from whole fruit and extracts varied widely among the cultivars with early ripening cultivars generally showing higher volatile emissions than later ripening cultivars. Although the cultivars tested differed in quantities, and in some cases, the types of volatiles produced, these differences were not related to pedigree (i.e., species composition) nor to known anthracnose resistance ratings. Except for the confounded emissions of terpinyl acetate and cadinene, more than 80% of the variation observed for each volatile was attributable to the cultivar (genetic), year (environmental), and cultivar–by-year interaction. The results suggest that, although antimicrobial aldehydes and terpenes emitted from fully ripe highbush blueberry fruit and extracts might be important flavor and aroma components, they do not significantly contribute to disease resistance against anthracnose fruit rot.
Effects of postharvest pressure infiltration of distilled water, CaCl2 solutions at 0.14 or 0.27 mol·L-1 without and with subsequent fruit coating treatments of preclimacteric `Golden Delicious' [Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill. var. domestica (Borkh.) Mansf. `Golden Delicious'] apples on volatile levels, respiration, ethylene production, and internal atmospheres after storage at 0 °C for 1 to 6 months, and during subsequent shelf life at 20 °C were investigated. Over 30 volatiles were detected, most of the identified volatiles were esters; the rest were alcohols, aldehydes, ethers, a ketone, and a sesquiterpene. Pressure infiltration of water and increasing concentrations of CaCl2 resulted progressively in reduced total volatile levels, respiration, ethylene production, and internal O2 levels and increased CO2 levels in fruit following 2 to 4 months storage in air at 0 °C. Total volatile levels, respiration, ethylene production, and internal atmospheres of CaCl2-treated apples at 0.14 mol·L-1 gradually recovered to nontreated control levels following 2 weeks of shelf life at 20 °C and/or storage at 0 °C in air for more than 4 months. Following the calcium treatments with a shellac- or wax-based coating had similar but stronger and more persistent effects on volatile levels, respiration, ethylene production, and internal atmospheres than those found in fruit treated with CaCl2 alone. Calcium infiltration did not change the composition of volatile compounds found in fruit. Results suggest that pressure infiltration of `Golden Delicious' apples with CaCl2 solutions transiently inhibited volatile levels, respiration, and ethylene production, in part, by forming a more-or-less transient barrier to CO2 and O2 exchange between the fruit tissue and the surrounding atmosphere.
The effects of postharvest pressure infiltration of calcium chloride (CaCl2) solutions, fruit coatings and shrink-wrap film treatments of apples (Malus domestica Borkh. `Golden Delicious') on peel injury, quality attributes, respiration and internal atmospheres after storage at 0 °C for 2 to 6 months, and during subsequent ripening at 20 °C were investigated. CaCl2 treatments (0.14 to 0.34 mol·L-1) reduced internal and evolved ethylene and softening of fruits, but they also caused distinctive injury to the fruit surface. Following the CaCl2 treatments with a water rinse and a wax- or shellac-based coating or a shrink-wrap film reduced surface injury in fruits treated with 0.24 or 0.34 mol·L-1 solutions of CaCl2 and eliminated injury resulting from a 0.14 mol·L-1 CaCl2 treatment. The fruit coatings delayed ripening; as indicated by better retention of fresh mass, green peel color, titratable acidity and flesh firmness, and the reduced respiration and ethylene production rates that were observed upon transferring the fruits to 20 °C. Sequential treatments with CaCl2 and a shrink-wrap film also reduced fresh mass loss, respiration and ethylene production rates, but had no effect on other quality characteristics. Internal CO2 levels increased and O2 and ethylene levels decreased in surface coated fruits during storage at 0 °C. Coating fruits without the use of CaCl2 also delayed ripening though not as well as that for fruits sequentially treated with CaCl2 and a surface coating.