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Benard Yada, Phinehas Tukamuhabwa, Arthur Villordon, Agnes Alajo and Robert O.M. Mwanga

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Jim C. Cervantes-Flores, G. Craig Yencho, Kenneth V. Pecota, Bryon Sosinski and Robert O.M. Mwanga

Resistance to root-knot nematodes [Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White) Chitwood] in sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] was studied in a mapping population consisting of 240 progeny derived from a cross between ‘Beauregard’, the predominant cultivar in the United States, and ‘Tanzania’, an African landrace. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) analyses to locate markers associated with resistance to root-knot nematodes (RKN) were performed using genetic maps based on parental segregation in ‘Beauregard’ and ‘Tanzania’ consisting of 726 and 947 single-dose amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers, respectively. RKN resistance in the progeny was highly skewed with most of the progeny exhibiting medium to high levels of resistance. Single-point analysis of variance and interval mapping revealed seven consistently significant QTL in ‘Tanzania’ and two significant QTL in ‘Beauregard’. In ‘Tanzania’, three QTL were associated with reduction in resistance as measured by the number of RKN egg masses and explained ≈20% of the variation. Another four QTL had positive effects on resistance and explained ≈21% of the variation. Other minor QTL explained ≈2% or less of the variation but were not always consistent across geographical locations. In ‘Beauregard’, two QTL had positive effects on RKN resistance and explained ≈6% of the observed variation. Based on molecular and phenotypic data, RKN resistance in sweetpotato is hypothesized to be conferred by several genes, but at least nine AFLP markers (seven from ‘Tanzania’ and two from ‘Beauregard’) are associated with genomic regions that have the biggest effect in the number of egg masses of RKN produced in the root system.

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Scovia Adikini, Settumba B. Mukasa, Robert O.M. Mwanga and Richard W. Gibson

Sweetpotato is usually propagated in Uganda by vine cuttings from mature crops, but sometimes sprouts from storage roots are used, especially in drought-prone areas. No information is available on whether the storage of roots of Ugandan cultivars are infected with the viruses and whether the sprouts on them express symptoms so that farmers can eliminate diseased ones. Information on root sprout reversion from virus infection is also lacking. The storage roots of five sweetpotato cultivars was sourced either by random selection of roots from already harvested roots or obtained from symptomless plants selected before harvest at Makerere University Agricultural Research Institute, Kabanyolo (MUARIK), and the National Semi Arid Resources Research Institute (NaSARRI). Roots were also generated in a screenhouse after being inoculated with Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV) and/or Sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV). More than 70% of sprouts from roots of all the cultivars selected after harvest at MUARIK and NaSARRI were infected with the viruses. For roots obtained from symptomless plants, 64% and 21% of the sprouted roots from MUARIK and NaSARRI were infected with the viruses, respectively. Most of the root samples from MUARIK had visible virus symptoms on sprouts and tested positive for both SPFMV and SPCSV, whereas those from NaSARRI did not show symptoms and were infected primarily with SPFMV. Plants graft-inoculated with either SPCSV or SPFMV alone produced both infected and noninfected roots, whereas all the root sprouts from dually infected plants showed virus symptoms. Reversion from virus infection was observed on root sprouts infected singly with SPFMV, whereas those infected with SPCSV showed recovery only, and none of the root sprouts infected by both viruses showed recovery. This study proves that roots are good reservoirs for viruses, and reversion occurs only when singly infected with SPFMV. Therefore, there is a need to establish seed channels in which seedstock is cleaned continuously and made available to farmers.

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Benard Yada, Phinehas Tukamuhabwa, Bramwell Wanjala, Dong-Jin Kim, Robert A. Skilton, Agnes Alajo and Robert O.M. Mwanga

The genetic relationships among 192 superior, high–yielding, and disease-resistant sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam] accessions from the Ugandan germplasm collection were analyzed using 10 fluorescent labeled simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Relatedness among the genotypes was estimated using the Nei and Li genetic distance coefficient, cluster analysis and principle component analysis methods of NTSYS-pc software. The polymorphic information content of the SSR markers used in this study ranged from 0.23 to 0.76 for loci IB-S07 and IB-R12, respectively, with a mean value of 0.62. The number of polymorphic alleles detected per locus ranged from two to six with a mean of four, a confirmation of the effectiveness of microsatellite detection on an automated ABI 3730 sequencer. The mean pairwise genetic distance among the 192 genotypes was 0.57, an indication of moderately high genetic diversity. Cluster analysis divided the accessions into four major groups with no relationship to the district of origin. Two sets of duplicates were identified through SSR genotyping in this study. Up to 190 distinct accessions for use as potential parental genotypes in hybridization schemes for cultivar development in the region were identified.

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Rolland Agaba, Phinehas Tukamuhabwa, Patrick Rubaihayo, Silver Tumwegamire, Andrew Ssenyonjo, Robert O.M. Mwanga, Jean Ndirigwe and Wolfgang J. Grüneberg

The amount of genotypic and phenotypic variability that exists in a species is important for selection and initiating breeding programs. Yam bean is grown locally in tropical countries of the Americas and Asia for their tasty storage roots, which usually have low dry matter content. The crop was recently introduced in Uganda and other East and Central African countries to supplement iron (Fe) and protein content in diets. This study aimed to estimate genetic variability for root yield and quality traits among 26 yam bean accessions in Uganda. A randomized complete block design was used with two replications across two ecogeographical locations and two seasons during 2012 and 2013. Near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) was used to determine quality of storage root samples. Significant differences among genotypes were observed for all traits except root protein, zinc (Zn), and phosphorus contents. Genotypic variance components () were significant for storage root fresh yield (SRFY), storage root dry matter (SRDM), storage root dry yield (SRDY), vine yield (VNY), fresh biomass yield (FBY), and storage root starch (STA) and Fe contents. For traits with significant the broad sense heritability estimates ranged from 58.4% for SRDY to 83.6% for FBY; and phenotypic coefficients of variation were high for SRFY (66%), SRDY (53.3%), VNY (60.5%), and FBY (59%), but low to medium for SRDM (22.6%), STA (15.1%), and Fe (21.3%). Similarly, the genotypic coefficients of variation were high for SRFY (56.7%), SRDY (53.3%), VNY (55%), and FBY (53.9%); and low for SRDM (20%), STA (12.4%), and Fe (17.8%). There were strong positive correlations between SRFY and both SRDY (r = 0.926) and FBY (r = 0.962), but low-to-moderate correlations among quality traits. It should be possible to breed for high dry matter yam beans by using low dry matter accessions due to the observed genetic variation ( = 9.3%2), which is important if the high dry matter Pachyrhizus tuberosus accessions (known as chuin) from Peru cannot be accessed. This study indicated substantial genetic variation for yield and quality traits in yam bean, demonstrating potential for adaptability to growing conditions and consumer needs in East and Central Africa and for genetic improvement through selection.

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Benard Yada, Gina Brown-Guedira, Agnes Alajo, Gorrettie N. Ssemakula, Robert O.M. Mwanga and G. Craig Yencho

Genetic diversity is critical in sweetpotato improvement as it is the source of genes for desired genetic gains. Knowledge of the level of genetic diversity in a segregating family contributes to our understanding of the genetic diversity present in crosses and helps breeders to make selections for population improvement and cultivar release. Simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers have become widely used markers for diversity and linkage analysis in plants. In this study, we screened 405 sweetpotato SSR markers for polymorphism on the parents and progeny of a biparental cross of New Kawogo × Beauregard cultivars. Thereafter, we used the informative markers to analyze the diversity in this population. A total of 250 markers were polymorphic on the parents and selected progeny; of these, 133 were informative and used for diversity analysis. The polymorphic information content (PIC) values of the 133 markers ranged from 0.1 to 0.9 with an average of 0.7, an indication of high level of informativeness. The pairwise genetic distances among the progeny and parents ranged from 0.2 to 0.9, and they were grouped into five main clusters. The 133 SSR primers were informative and are recommended for use in sweetpotato diversity and linkage analysis.

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Damien Shumbusha, Jean Ndirigwe, Lydia Kankundiye, Anastasie Musabyemungu, Daphrose Gahakwa, Phanuel S. Ndayemeye and Robert O.M. Mwanga

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Silver Tumwegamire, Regina Kapinga, Patrick R. Rubaihayo, Don R. LaBonte, Wolfgang J. Grüneberg, Gabriela Burgos, Thomas zum Felde, Rosemary Carpio, Elke Pawelzik and Robert O.M. Mwanga

The present study evaluated selected East African (EA) sweetpotato varieties for storage root dry matter and nutrient content and obtained information on the potential contributions of the varieties to alleviate vitamin A and mineral deficiencies. Roots obtained from 89 farmer (white- and orange-fleshed) varieties and one introduced variety (‘Resisto’) were analyzed for storage root quality using near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy technology. Location differences were only significant for starch content. The variance was significant (P < 0.01) for all the traits except sucrose content. Overall, the farmer varieties had higher dry matter, higher starch, and lower sucrose contents than the control clone, ‘Resisto’. It is these qualities that make sweetpotato attractive as a starchy staple in EA. A low population's mean β-carotene content (19.0 ppm) was observed. However, deep orange-fleshed farmer varieties, ‘Carrot_C’, ‘Ejumula’, ‘Carrot Dar’, ‘Mayai’, and ‘Zambezi’, had β-carotene content that can meet 350% or greater of recommended daily allowance (RDA) with 250-g serving to a 5- to 8–year-old child. More but light orange-fleshed farmer varieties ‘K-118’, ‘K-134’, ‘K-46’, ‘KMI61’, ‘MLE162 Nakahi’, ‘PAL161’, ‘Sowola6’, ‘Sponge’, ‘SRT34 Abuket2’, ‘SRT35 Anyumel’, ‘SRT52’, and ‘Sudan’ can provide 50% to 90% RDA of pro-vitamin A for the child. The root minerals’ content was generally low except for magnesium whose content can meet 50% or greater RDA in many farmer varieties. However, in areas with high sweetpotato consumption, varieties ‘Carrot_C’, ‘Carrot Dar’, ‘KRE nylon’, ‘MLE163 Kyebandula’, and ‘SRT49 Sanyuzameza’ can make good intakes of iron, zinc, calcium, and magnesium. In conclusion, some EA farmer varieties can contribute greatly to alleviation of vitamin A deficiency and substantial mineral intakes.

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Robert O.M. Mwanga, Charles Niringiye, Agnes Alajo, Benjamin Kigozi, Joweria Namukula, Isaac Mpembe, Silver Tumwegamire, Richard W. Gibson and G. Craig Yencho

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Arthur Villordon, Wambui Njuguna, Simon Gichuki, Philip Ndolo, Heneriko Kulembeka, Simon C. Jeremiah, Don LaBonte, Bernard Yada, Phinehas Tukamuhabwa and Robert O. M. Mwanga

Detailed information on the geographic distribution of a crop is important in planning efficient germplasm conservation strategies but is often not available, particularly for minor crops. Using germplasm collection data from Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda, we used distribution modeling to predict the distribution of sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas L. (Lam.)] in sub-Saharan Africa. We used a consensus modeling approach using the following algorithms: genetic algorithm for rule set prediction (GARP), maximum entropy, BIOCLIM, and DOMAIN. The predicted distribution encompasses known sweetpotato production areas as well as additional areas suited for this crop species. New geographic areas where at least three models predicted presence were in Angola, Cameroon, Central African Republic, The Congo, Democratic Republic of Congo, Gabon, Ghana, Angola, Ethiopia, Mozambique, Rwanda, and the Central African Republic. This information can be used to fill gaps in current sweetpotato germplasm collections as well as to further enhance the current presence-only based distribution model. Our approach demonstrates the usefulness of considering several models in developing distribution maps.