Four studies were conducted from 2001 to 2004 in Michigan to determine Christmas tree tolerance and weed control with flumioxazin and other herbicide treatments. In Study 1, fraser fir (Abies fraseri) leader length was greater with fall-applied flumioxazin (0.38 lb/acre) than with halosulfuron (0.21 lb/acre), isoxaben (1 lb/acre), oxyfluorfen (1 lb/acre), simazine (2 lb/acre), or sulfentrazone (0.5 lb/acre). Flumioxazin applied in the fall provided preemergent control of common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia), field violet (Viola arvensis), and hoary alyssum (Berteroa incana) 79% to 98% the following summer. Preemergence weed control with the other herbicides was more variable. In Study 2, fraser fir treated in the spring with oxyfluorfen had the shortest leader length (terminal stem growth of the current growing season) at 4.3 inches. Trees treated in the spring with flumioxazin, isoxaben, simazine, and sulfentrazone had leader lengths of 6.7 to 8.7 inches. Flumioxazin applied preemergence in the spring controlled common ragweed 80%, but controlled field violet, hoary alyssum, and white campion (Silene alba) only 43% to 64%. In Study 3, fall-applied flumioxazin alone did not injure colorado blue spruce (Picea pungens). However, mixtures of flumioxazin plus pendimethalin (3 lb/acre) caused 5% and 6% tree injury at 6 months after treatment (MAT) and sulfentrazone plus pendimethalin caused 9% and 23% injury at 6 MAT in 2003 and 2004, and 52% injury at 9 MAT in 2004. There was no significant injury to the trees treated with isoxaben plus pendimethalin, oxyfluorfen plus pendimethalin, or simazine plus pendimethalin in 2003 and 2004. Leader length was reduced by sulfentrazone plus pendimethalin compared with flumioxazin plus pendimethalin and oxyfluorfen plus pendimethalin. Flumioxazin plus pendimethalin provided 84% to 88% preemergence control of annual grasses, common catsear (Hypochoeris radicata), horseweed (Conyza canadensis), and virginia pepperweed (Lepidium virginicum). In Study 4, spring-applied mixtures of flumioxazin plus pendimethalin resulted in minor (2%–10%) visual injury to colorado blue spruce, although leader length at the end of the season did not differ significantly from the control. In summary, flumioxazin controlled several weed species with acceptable selectivity in colorado blue spruce and fraser fir Christmas trees.
Robert J. Richardson and Bernard H. Zandstra
Robert E. Uhlig, George Bird, Robert J. Richardson and Bernard H. Zandstra
A field study was conducted to evaluate fumigant alternatives for methyl bromide (MB). Iodomethane (IM), chloropicrin (CP), 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D), metham sodium (MS), and MB in various combinations were applied to a sandy soil field site in Sept. 2002. Some treatments were tarped. Plant injury, plant growth, fresh weight, and dry weight were evaluated for seven ornamental species: cushion spurge (Euphorbia polychroma), globe thistle (Echinops bannaticus ‘Blue Globe’), common lavender (Lavandula angustifolia ‘Hidcote Blue’), hosta (Hosta ‘Twilight PP14040’), silvermound artemisia (Artemisia schmidtiana ‘Silver Mound’), shasta daisy (Leucanthemum ×superbum ‘Snow Lady’), and thread leaf coreopsis (Coreopsis verticillata ‘Moonbeam’). Weed control was evaluated in Apr. 2003, July 2003, and May 2004. All treatments gave almost complete control of all annual weeds, except for IM 50% + CP 50% (200 lb/acre, tarped) and MS (75 gal/acre, 1:4 water, not tarped), which did not give adequate control of common chickweed (Stellaria media), mouseear cress (Arabidopsis thaliana), common lambsquarters (Chenopodium album), or common purslane (Portulaca oleracea). None of the treatments caused visual injury to any crop species. Treatments did not affect plant size in Nov. 2003. However, some treatments resulted in larger thread leaf coreopsis and silvermound artemisia plants in May 2004. There was no difference in dry weight at harvest between treatments for all species.
Lisa E. Richardson-Calfee, J. Roger Harris, Robert H. Jones and Jody K. Fanelli
Root system regeneration after transplanting of large trees is key to successful establishment, yet the influences of different production systems and transplant timing on root growth remain poorly understood. Patterns of new root production and mortality were therefore measured for 1 year after transplanting landscape-sized Acer saccharum Marsh. (sugar maple). Trees were transplanted into root observation chambers (rhizotrons) from two production systems, balled-and-burlapped (B&B) and pot-in-pot (PIP), in November, December, March, April, and July and compared with non-transplanted trees. Although root production stopped in midwinter in all transplants and non-transplanted field-grown trees, slight wintertime root production was observed in non-transplanted PIP trees. Root mortality occurred year-round in all treatments with highest mortality in winter in the transplanted trees and spring and summer in the non-transplanted trees. Non-transplanted PIP trees had significantly greater standing root length, annual production, and mortality than non-transplanted field and transplanted PIP trees. For B&B trees, greatest standing length, production, and mortality occurred in the April transplant treatment. Production and mortality were roughly equal for non-transplanted trees, but production dominated early dynamics of transplanted trees. Overall, increases in root length occurred in all treatments, but the magnitude and timing of root activity were influenced by both production system and timing of transplant.
Gregory R. Armel, Robert J. Richardson, Henry P. Wilson, Brian W. Trader, Cory M. Whaley and Thomas E. Hines
Field and greenhouse studies were conducted in 2001 and 2002 near Painter, VA, to determine the level of weed control and pepper (Capsicum annuum) tolerance to postemergence applications of the acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitors trifloxysulfuron, halosulfuron, sulfosulfuron, cloransulam, and tribenuron. Based on measurements of visual injury, heights, dry weights, and chlorophyll content of pepper, the safest ALS inhibitor to pepper was trifloxysulfuron followed by halosulfuron, cloransulam, sulfosulfuron, and tribenuron. In addition, trifloxysulfuron was the only herbicide that provided greater than 86% control of pigweed species (Amaranthus spp.) and carpetweed (Mollugo verticillata) in both years of the field study. Trifloxysulfuron was also the only herbicide evaluated that did not reduce pepper yield compared with the control in both years of the field study.