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- Author or Editor: Robert H. Jones x
To assess the value of uncultivated vegetation for control of cucumber beetles, populations of striped (Acalymma vittatum Fabr.), spotted (Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi Barber), and western cucumber beetles (Acalymma trivittatum Mann.) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) and natural enemy Diptera flies (as an indicator of Celatoria spp. parasitoids), Pennsylvania leatherwings (Chauliognathus pennsylvanicus DeGeer) (Coleoptera: Cantharidae), lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), Hymenoptera wasps, and spiders were monitored with sticky traps on 50-m transects running through a field of Cucumis sativa L. `Arkansas Littleleaf' into bordering uncultivated vegetation. Plant species composition was determined in square plots around each sticky trap by estimating total plant cover and height distribution of plants from 0 to 1.0 m. In both years, numbers of cucumber beetles increased and numbers of Diptera decreased towards the crop. These trends increased monthly to peaks in Aug. 1995 (0.3 to 6.0 striped cucumber beetles; 40.0 to 15.3 Diptera) and July in 1996 (0.1 to 7.1 striped cucumber beetles; 46.7 to 15.5 Diptera). Abundance of individual plant species contributed more to maximum R 2 regression of insect populations than did measures of plant diversity in sampling squares. Diptera were negatively correlated with sweet-vernal grass (r = –0.65 at 0 m) and wild rose (r = –0.62 at 0.5 m) in 1995, and goldenrod (r = –0.31, –0.59, and –0.53 at 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0 m, respectively) in 1996, but positively correlated with wild violets (Viola spp.) (r = +0.38 at 0 m) in 1996. Cucumber beetles were negatively correlated with wild violets (r = –0.30 at 0 m) and white clover (Trifolium repens) (r = –0.37 at 0 m) in 1996. These results suggest that increasing or decreasing specific plants in uncultivated vegetation might be useful for influencing pest and beneficial insect populations in cucurbit production.
Root system regeneration after transplanting of large trees is key to successful establishment, yet the influences of different production systems and transplant timing on root growth remain poorly understood. Patterns of new root production and mortality were therefore measured for 1 year after transplanting landscape-sized Acer saccharum Marsh. (sugar maple). Trees were transplanted into root observation chambers (rhizotrons) from two production systems, balled-and-burlapped (B&B) and pot-in-pot (PIP), in November, December, March, April, and July and compared with non-transplanted trees. Although root production stopped in midwinter in all transplants and non-transplanted field-grown trees, slight wintertime root production was observed in non-transplanted PIP trees. Root mortality occurred year-round in all treatments with highest mortality in winter in the transplanted trees and spring and summer in the non-transplanted trees. Non-transplanted PIP trees had significantly greater standing root length, annual production, and mortality than non-transplanted field and transplanted PIP trees. For B&B trees, greatest standing length, production, and mortality occurred in the April transplant treatment. Production and mortality were roughly equal for non-transplanted trees, but production dominated early dynamics of transplanted trees. Overall, increases in root length occurred in all treatments, but the magnitude and timing of root activity were influenced by both production system and timing of transplant.