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  • Author or Editor: Robert G. Nelson x
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Abstract

This reports a 1960-1964 study of the responses of ‘Concord’ grapevines, own-rooted as well as grafted on the phylloxera resistant rootstock ‘Couderc 3309’, to pruning severity, thinning of fruit, N fertilization and weed control in a factorial experiment at Fredonia, New York.

Although phylloxera were present, moderate size of vine and large yield were attained with own-rooted vines. Here, ‘3309’ rootstock did not have a unique effect on ‘Concord’.

As an initial response, in 1960, when the range in vine size was 1.8 to 3.0 lb. of cane prunings per vine, increases in vine size were associated with increased yield because fruitfulness was not then seriously depressed by the vine size increasing treatments of ‘3009’ rootstock, cultivation, and N fertilization.

As an equilibrium response in 1963-1964, in the range in vine size of 1.9-4.9 lb. of cane prunings per vine, when vine size was above 3.5 lb. of cane prunings, the decline in fruitfulness prevented a gain in yield, and there was either no increase or a decrease in fruit maturity.

A 1966 sequel, affording 8’ and 16’ of canopy length for each 8’ spaced vine, showed fruitfulness to be closely associated with node number per unit length of canopy. Where the canopy length is fixed, crowding was likely the basis for the declines in fruitfulness which accompanied increases in vine size and node number.

The effect of the resistant rootstock ‘3309’ was similar to that of the other vine-size increasing treatments in that it decreased fruitfulness and fruit maturity and had a small effect on yield and on soluble solids/vine.

Open Access

For most grocery stores, external quality standards require that premium mandarins be orange, unblemished, and large. Thus, for consumers to differentiate among the premium mandarins on any dimension other than price, additional positioning attributes must be evaluated. This study considered consumer preferences for price ($2.18/kg, $4.39/kg, or $15.41/kg), packaging (1.36 kg of loose fruit, 1.36-kg bag, 2.27-kg box, or 0.23-kg clamshell with peeled fruit sections), type of mandarin (clementine, satsuma, tangerine), shelf life from the day of purchase (3, 14, or 31 days), and vitamin C content (with or without a label stating high in vitamin C). A conjoint survey was conducted in four grocery stores located in Birmingham and Montgomery, Ala. In total, 289 respondents used a 7-point intention-to-buy scale to rate photographs of 16 product profiles. Six market segments were identified, based on maximal similarity of preferences within each segment and maximal differences between segments. A simulation was conducted of the effect that an introduction of peeled-and-sectioned satsumas would have on the market share and gross revenue of other mandarins. This product showed great potential, but should be offered in a product mix that includes the loose form as well. Labeling for vitamin C was preferred by all segments, but did not contribute much to the intention-to-buy rating. Awareness and recognition of satsumas needs to be addressed in promotional campaigns. The longest shelf life was the first choice of almost half the respondents.

Free access

This article reviews the results of 5 years of marketing research on Alabama satsumas and makes recommendations for future progress. Although there are only 28 ha of satsuma orchards in production in Alabama at this time, there are a number of encouraging developments that suggest considerable potential for expanding the industry such as microsprinkler freeze protection, new early-maturing and cold-tolerant varieties, contract sales through the Farm-to-School Program, and rising demand for premium mandarins. Prospects for the industry marketing effort are considered from the perspectives of analyzing marketing opportunities, identifying market segments, selecting attractive target markets, designing marketing strategies, planning marketing programs, and managing the continuing marketing effort. A number of distinct consumer segments have been identified, including one that prefers fruit that is still slightly green and another that prefers a longer shelf life. A peeled-and-sectioned product also appears to have considerable market potential. Name recognition is still a problem as is insipid flavor from fruit that is marketed beyond its optimal ripeness. Needs for the future are detailed and include the needs of the commodity (freeze protection and expanded acreage), the needs of the market (consistency and quality), the needs of the product (quality standards and consumer awareness), the need for and the needs of a brand (recognition and equity potential), the needs of an organization (cooperation and leadership), and the needs of the industry (processes for building equity, forestalling competition, reducing supply shocks, and attracting investment).

Free access

Most bell peppers (Capsicum annuum L.) produced and consumed are green. However, yellow, red, orange, white, black, and purple bell peppers are also available. While bell pepper consumption in the United States has been increasing in the past 10 years, limited information is available on how their color, retail price, and vitamin C content influence consumer preferences. A conjoint analysis of 435 consumer responses showed that, for the total sample, color was about three times more important than retail price in shaping consumers' purchase decisions, while vitamin C content was nearly irrelevant. Six distinct consumer segments were identified through cluster analysis. Four segments favored green peppers, while one segment favored yellow and one favored brown. Demographic variables generally were not good predictors of segment membership, but several behavioral variables, such as past bell pepper purchases, were significantly related to segment membership. While green is generally the preferred color, market segments exist for orange, red, yellow, and even brown peppers. Applications to marketing strategies suggested that price sensitivity could explain why green peppers were priced individually, but those of other colors were priced by weight, and that promotion of increased vitamin C content would be most effective if associated specifically with yellow and orange peppers.

Free access

Abstract

Economic efficiencies were greatest in peak sales periods in surveyed floricultural firms selling both to retail florists, and mass markets. Efficiency decreased in intermediate and slack sales periods. About the same procedures were followed in each time period, but sales were reduced in intermediate, and slack periods. Surveyed firms selling to mass markets sold bedding plants during peak periods which required no variable labor or capital marketing inputs; thus, they were more technically efficient than firms selling to retail florists during the peak period. Economies of size were found in the retail florist channel but not in the mass market channel. Maximum economic efficiency was reached at a smaller size by firms selling to mass markets, indicating that the mass market channel was more competitive in the marketing function than was the retail florist channel. Large differences in technical efficiency were found within groups, indicating that increased profit could be made by the least efficient firms adopting the efficient technology of the most efficient firms within the same group. Within groups, the most efficient firms utilized more fully their fixed inputs than did the least efficient, and were thus able to expend a reduced percentage of sales on variable inputs. A persistant problem for the least efficient firms, especially during slack periods, was a delivery cost larger than that of the most efficient firms resulting from an increase in distance and number of stops.

Open Access

Satsuma mandarins (Citrus unshiu) have been produced intermittently along the Gulf Coast for over a century. However, very little is known about the market potential for this citrus fruit in today's consumer markets. This study evaluated consumer preferences for seven external attributes over a range of levels: price ($1.07, $2.18, or $4.39/kg), color (green-yellow, yellow-orange, or orange), size (5.08, 6.35, or 7.62 cm in diameter), seediness (0, 3, or 7 seeds), blemishes (0, 1.91, or 3 cm in diameter), production region label (Alabama or U.S.A.), and organic production (yes or no). Consumers from grocery stores in nine cities in Alabama and Georgia were asked to evaluate 20 photographs of various combinations of these attribute levels using a seven-point intention-to-buy scale. 605 useable surveys were collected and a conjoint analysis was conducted to determine the strength of preference for the attribute levels and the relative importance for attributes. Three consumer segments were identified by cluster analysis of strengths of preferences: the no-blemish segment (37% of sample), the price-sensitive segment (23% of sample), and the no-seeds segment (41% of sample). A multinomial logit analysis identified several demographic, socioeconomic, and usage variables as significant determinants of segment membership.

Free access

Abstract

The total costs of producing Easter lilies (Lilium longiflorum, Thunb.) were developed for firms with 1,800 m2, 9,000 m2, and 36,000 m2 of production area. Economies of size existed in 2 market channels (mass market and full service florist). The total costs of Easter lilies to producers in the mass market marketing channel, including the cost of 6.31% bulbs that did not emerge, were $2.08, $1.83, and $1.63 per pot for the 1.800 m2, 9,000 m2, and 36,000 m2 firms, respectively. Costs were $0.48, $0.36, and $0.32 higher per pot for the florist producers than for the mass market producers for the small, medium, and large firms, respectively.

Open Access

Macadamia is partially self-incompatible and cross-pollination is considered important to improve yields. However, questions remain regarding the importance of self- vs. cross-pollination, and subsequently whether managed pollinators are useful in commercial orchards. Pollinators play a key role in cross-pollination, but for self-pollination, the protandrous florets might also benefit from the movement of potentially more viable self-pollen among florets, racemes, and trees through pollinator movement. There is also a lack of information on pollination deficits throughout orchards and whether by increasing the intensity of cross-pollination, final nut yield is limited by within-tree resource allocation. Using caged and bagged racemes on three cultivars, we found strong evidence for self-pollination, but no evidence that hand moving self-pollen within racemes, between racemes, or between trees improved final nut set. In all cases, hand cross-pollinated racemes yielded significantly more nuts. Hand cross-pollinated racemes also produced significantly more developed nuts than open-pollinated racemes (all racemes were exposed to pollinators). However, by increasing the intensity of hand cross-pollination per tree, we showed that resource allocation probably overinflates these measures of pollination deficit in macadamia. Despite this, our findings point to an opportunity to increase yields through additional cross-pollination, as high-intensity hand cross-pollination of flowering racemes within trees still resulted in increased nut set. Although self-pollination can occur in macadamia, to optimize yield potential, strategies to maximize cross-pollination should be adopted.

Free access