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  • Author or Editor: Robert D. Hagenmaier x
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Victorine Alleyne and Robert D. Hagenmaier

An experimental candelilla-shellac formulation for coating apples (Malus ×domestica Borkh.) was developed and compared with commercial shellac-based and carnauba-shellac-based coatings on `Gala' and `Delicious' apples by determining effects on quality attributes, respiration, and internal atmospheres. Fruit were stored at 5 °C for 7 days followed by storage at 21 °C for 14 days. Gloss of `Delicious' apples coated with candelilla-shellac formulations containing 7% to 34% shellac increased with increasing shellac concentrations. `Gala' and `Delicious' apples coated with a candelilla formulation containing 34% shellac maintained quality similar to those coated with commercial carnauba-shellac-based coatings, as indicated by gloss, firmness, internal CO2, O2 and ethanol levels, steady-state respiration rate, weight loss, and flavor. By comparison, shellac-coated fruit maintained the highest gloss throughout the experimental period. Shellac-coated apples were also firmer, contained more ethanol, and received higher flavor scores than did apples receiving other coating treatments. Gloss of all coated fruit decreased with time, although shellac-coated fruit lost less gloss over the 21-day storage period. Analysis of gloss, firmness, fruit respiration, ethanol, weight loss, and flavor demonstrate that the candelilla formulation containing 34% shellac is competitive with current commercial carnauba-based apple-coating products.

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Robert D. Hagenmaier and Robert A. Baker

The shrinkage rate of `Marsh' grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.), `Ambersweet' hybrid [(C. reticulata Blanco × C. paradisi Macf. × C. reticulata) × C. sinensis (L.) Osb.] and `Valencia' oranges [C. sinensis (L.) Osb.] was increased 50 % to 150% by washing the fruit with rotary brushes, but was not changed by hand-washing the fruit with cellulose sponges. Internal CO2 increased using both washing methods. Waxed fruit obtained from five Florida packinghouses and cleaned with rotary brushes and waxed had shrinkage rates the same as those of nonwashed controls. Thus, controlling the washing process is important to minimize shrinkage of fresh citrus fruit.

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Robert D. Hagenmaier and Robert A. Baker

Valencia oranges [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck cv. Valencia] and Marsh grapefruit [Citrus paradisi Macf.] were treated with single or double layers of coating. In cases where two coatings were applied, the first coating was a moisture-barrier wax; the second was either polyethylene wax or a mixture of shellac and resin ester. The inner coating reduced weight loss, and the outer coating imparted gloss. Fruit gloss, as measured by reflectometer, decreased more rapidly during 1 week at 20C with a single glossy coating than with the same coating applied as a second layer over a wax-based first coating. For citrus fruit, using resin ester or shellac as a high-gloss second coating tended to overly restrict the exchange of O2 and CO2; however, two layers of wax did not.

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Robert D. Hagenmaier and Philip E. Shaw

The permeability to O2, CO2, C2H4, and water vapor was determined for 19 commercial fruit wax coatings, four ingredients thereof, and one shrink-wrap film. For the commercial coatings, the O2permeability at 50% relative humidity and 30C ranged from 470 to 22,000 ml (STP) × mil/(m2 × day × atm) (1 mil = 0.0254 mm) with CO)2. permeability two to eight times as high. Permeability to noncondensable gases tended to be higher for coatings made from carnauba wax than for those made from shellac and rosin. Commercial fruit wax had sufficiently low noncondensable gas permeability to account for large reductions in the respiration rate of coated fruit. Wax coatings could be improved if permeability were controlled: