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Robert M. Crassweller and Donald E. Smith

An apple planting was established in 1996 comprised of two cultivars: `Ginger Gold' (GG) and `Crimson Gala' (CG) on Malling 9 NAKB T337 and Budagovsky 9 at the Horticulture Research Farm at Rock Springs, Pa. The trees were planted at a spacing of 1.5 × 3.7 m in a randomized complete-block design with 10 replications. The trees were trained to a vertical axe system with a single wire set at 2.8 m, to which the conduit was attached. Data collected included trunk cross-sectional area (TCA), tree yield, number of fruit, and number of rootsuckers. Calculated data included annual tree growth, tree efficiency, average fruit weight, and crop load. In most years, there were significant cultivar × rootstock interactions for some variables. At planting and for the first two growing seasons, GG/B.9 were significantly larger than GG/M.9 as measured by TCA. At planting, there were no differences in TCA for CG, but, by the end of 1996, M.9 trees were significantly larger and stayed this way for the rest of the study. The GG/M.9 trees did not have significantly larger TCA than those on B.9 until 2005. Trees on B.9 were 23% and 31% smaller in 2005 for GG and CG, respectively, for B.9 than on M.9. Flowering occurred first and in greater abundance for GG/B.9. At the end of the 10th growing season, there was no difference in number of fruit or total yield per tree within cultivars by rootstock. However, for both cultivars, efficiency was highest for trees on B.9. Rootsuckers were greatest for trees on B.9. Fruit weight, when adjusted with number of fruit/tree as a covariate, was different for GG in some years.

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John M. DeLong and Robert M Crassweller

Fruit Yield and quality measurements were taken from 10 year-old `Newhaven' peach trees pruned at prebloom (preb), full-bloom (fb), and 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks following fb. Trees were hand-pruned with dormant type thinning and heading cuts. Fruit weight and circumference tended to decrease from fb onwards, while fruit were firmer at fb+4 and fb+6 than at preb. Firmer peaches were also measured at fb+6 than at fb. Fruit color was measured on a tristimulus color scale. Value (L) indicated that lighter fruit occurred with pruning at preb, fb, and fb+4 weeks, while fruit were darker at fb+2, fb+6 and fb+8 weeks. Hue (a) indicated that trees being pruned at preb had redder fruit than those pruned at fb+2 or fb+8 weeks. Redder fruit were also measured at fb+6 than at fb+8 weeks. Chroma (b) indicated that peaches from trees pruned at fb+4 had the highest degree of yellow, while fruit from tree pruning at fb were more yellow than at fb+2, fb+6 and fb+8 weeks. Also being investigated are the pruning timing effects on cold hardiness and carbohydrate status of one year-old stems, and on Cytospora canker incidence at the pruning cuts.

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Kathleen Kelley, Jeffrey Hyde, James Travis and Robert Crassweller

One hundred forty-nine consumers participated in a sensory evaluation, conducted on 14 Nov. 2008, at The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, to determine consumer acceptance and perceptions of scab-resistant apples (Malus ×domestica). Consumers were exclusively screened for liking and eating apples. The study provides tree fruit growers and marketers in the mid-Atlantic United States with information on consumer preferences for apples that might substitute for common cultivars that require frequent apple scab pesticide applications. Resistant cultivars are also attractive in organic production systems. During the 10-minute sensory evaluation, panelists rated five scab-resistant apples [‘Crimson Crisp’, ‘GoldRush’, NY 75907–49 (NY 49), ‘Crimson Topaz’, and ‘Sundance’] and a commercially available non-resistant cultivar, Jonagold, on appearance, aroma, texture, flavor, and overall liking using a nine-point hedonic scale (9 = “like extremely” and 1 = “dislike extremely”). Three of the four apples tested with a red peel (‘Crimson Topaz’, NY 49, and ‘Crimson Crisp’) were rated significantly higher than the other apples on the basis of appearance, receiving mean ratings that were between “like moderately” and “like very much,” a rating of 7 and 8, respectively. In regards to texture, ‘Crimson Topaz’ and ‘Crimson Crisp’ were significantly higher than ‘Jonagold’ and NY 49, with mean ratings between “like slightly” and “like moderately.” For overall liking scores, ‘Crimson Crisp’, which was rated between “like slightly” and “like moderately,” was not significantly different from ‘Crimson Topaz’ and ‘GoldRush’; however, ‘Crimson Crisp’ was rated higher than ‘Jonagold’, NY 49, and ‘Sundance’. Panelists also responded to questions regarding their food-purchasing attitudes and behaviors. Sixty-two percent of panelists purchased fresh apples for themselves and/or other household members at least “two or three times a month” during an average year. Only 2.7% responded that they purchased fresh apples “more than once a week.” This study of consumer preferences provides an initial assessment of the feasibility of marketing new apple cultivars and organic apples within the mid-Atlantic U.S. region. Those that performed well in the sensory evaluation should be candidates for additional market research.

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Kathleen Evensen, Philip Hammer, Robert Crassweller, George Greene and Laura Lehman-Salada

We present a method for predicting firmness of `York Imperial' apples after air or controlled-atmosphere storage. Firmness and soluble solids content in freshly harvested fruit can be plotted on a graph showing a “decision line.” If the prestorage firmness and soluble solids coordinates for a given sample are above the decision line, then firmness after storage is predicted to be greater than the target value. Prestorage flesh firmness and soluble solids content were the best predictors of poststorage firmness. There was no significant improvement in firmness prediction when ethylene, starch, or other indicators of maturity were included.

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Richard P. Marini, James R. Schupp, Tara Auxt Baugher and Robert Crassweller

Early-season fruit diameter measurements for ‘Gala’, ‘Fuji’, and ‘Honeycrisp’ apples in three orchards for 3 years were used to develop regression models to estimate fruit weight at harvest. Fruit weight at harvest was linearly related to fruit diameter 60 days after bloom, but intercepts and slopes were not homogeneous for all nine combinations of orchards and years for any of the cultivars. When the entire data set for a cultivar was used to develop a single predictive model, the model was biased and underpredicted fruit weight for small fruit and overpredicted fruit weight for large fruit. Adding the ratio of (fruit weight/fruit diameter) at 60 days after bloom to the model with fruit diameter at 60 days after bloom produced a less-biased model with improved coefficients of determination, and predicted values were more similar to the observed values. The (fruit weight/fruit diameter) ratio was positively related to cumulative growing degree days for the 60 days before the fruit were measured and tended to be lower in years when fruits were exposed to frosts. These multiple regression models can be used to develop tables with predicted fruit weights at harvest for varying combinations of fruit diameter and (fruit weight/fruit diameter) ratio 60 days after bloom.

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Richard P. Marini, James R. Schupp, Tara Auxt Baugher and Robert Crassweller

Canopies of ‘Gala’ and ‘Fuji’ trees, trained to the vertical axis, were divided into eight vertical sections, each representing 12.5% of the tree canopy. The diameter of all ‘Gala’ fruit and fruit weight for all ‘Fuji’ fruit were recorded for each canopy section. Fruit size from most canopy sections was normally distributed and distributions were similar for most sections. Therefore, fruit size distribution for a tree can be estimated by harvesting fruit from two sections of a tree, representing 25% of the canopy. For small trees in intensive plantings, with canopy diameters less than 2.0 m, average fruit diameter or fruit weight estimated from all fruit collected from 25% of the canopy may provide estimates within 7% of the true value.

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Wesley Autio*, John Cline, Robert Crassweller, Charles Embree, Elena Garcia, Emily Hoover, Kevin Kosola, Ronald Perry and Terence Robinson

`McIntosh' apple trees [Malus ×sylvestris (L.) Mill. Var domestica (Borkh.)] on five semidwarfing rootstocks (CG.4814, CG.7707, G.30N, M.7 EMLA, and Supporter 4) were planted at 10 locations (MA, MI MN NS 2 in NY ON PA VT and WI) under the direction of the NC-140 Multistate Research Project. After four growing seasons (through 2002), trees on CG.7707, G.30N, Supporter 4, and M.7 EMLA were significantly larger than those on CG.4814. Cumulative root suckering was most from trees on M.7 EMLA, and least from trees on CG.7707, G.30N, and Supporter 4. Yield per tree in 2002 and cumulatively was greatest from trees on G.30N and least from trees on CG.7707 and M.7 EMLA. In 2002 and cumulatively, CG.4814 resulted in the greatest yield efficiency, and M.7 EMLA resulted in the lowest. In 2002, fruit from trees on M.7 EMLA were largest, and those from trees on CG.4814 were smallest. On average, M.7 EMLA resulted in the largest fruit, and G.30N resulted in the smallest. Limited data will be presented on CG.6210, CG.8, G.30T, and M.26 EMLA, which are planted only at some locations. Data for the fifth season (2003) will be presented.

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Wesley Autio*, John Cline, Robert Crassweller, Charles Embree, Elena Garcia, Emily Hoover, Kevin Kosola, Ronald Perry and Terence Robinson

`McIntosh' apple trees [Malus ×sylvestris (L.) Mill. Var domestica (Borkh.)] on 10 dwarfing rootstocks (CG.3041, CG.4013, CG.5179, CG.5202, G.16N, G.16T, M.9 NAKBT337, Supporter 1, Supporter 2, and Supporter 3) were planted at 10 locations (MA, MI MN NS 2 in NY ON PA VT and WI) under the direction of the NC-140 Multistate Research Project. After four growing seasons (through 2002), trees on CG.5202 and CG.4013 were significantly larger than those on all other rootstocks. Smallest trees were on M.9 NAKBT337. Trees on other rootstocks were intermediate. Rootstock did not influence cumulative root suckering. Yield per tree in 2002 was greatest from trees on CG.4013 and lowest from trees on M.9 NAKBT337; however, cumulatively, trees on M.9 NAKBT337 and CG.4013 yielded the most. Yield efficiency in 2002 was not affected by rootstock. Cumulatively, rootstock had very little effect, but trees on CG.5202 were the least efficient. In 2002, M.9 NAKBT337, CG.3041, and Supporter 2 resulted in the largest fruit, and CG.5179 resulted in the smallest. On average, M.9 NAKBT337 resulted in the largest fruit, and G.16T resulted in the smallest. Limited data will be presented on CG.5935 and M.26 EMLA, which are planted only at some locations. Data for the fifth season (2003) will be presented.

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Wesley Autio*, LaMar Anderson, Bruce Barritt, Robert Crass-weller, David Ferree, George Greene, Scott Johnson, Joseph Masabni, Michael Parker and Gregory Reighard

`Fuji' apple trees [Malus ×sylvestris (L.) Mill. Var domestica. (Borkh.)] on five semidwarfing rootstocks (CG.4814, CG.7707, G.30N, M.26 EMLA, and M.7 EMLA) were planted at nine locations (CA, KY MO NC OH PA SC UT and WA) under the direction of the NC-140 Multistate Research Project. After four growing seasons (through 2002), trees on CG.7707 and M.7 EMLA were the largest, and those on M.26 EMLA were the smallest. M.7 EMLA resulted in more cumulative root suckering per tree than did any other rootstock. Yield per tree in 2002 and cumulatively was greatest from trees on CG.4814, CG.7707, and G.30N and least from trees on M.26 EMLA and M.7 EMLA. The most yield efficient trees in 2002 and cumulatively were on CG.4814, and the least efficient trees were on M.26 EMLA and M.7 EMLA. Rootstock did not affect fruit weight in 2002; however, on average, CG.7707 resulted in the largest fruit, and CG.4814 resulted in the smallest. Limited data will be presented on CG.6210, G.30T, and Supporter 4, which are planted only at some locations. Data for the fifth season (2003) will be presented.

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Wesley Autio*, LaMar Anderson, Bruce Barritt, Robert Crass-weller, David Ferree, George Greene, Scott Johnson, Joseph Masabni, Michael Parker and Gregory Reighard

`Fuji' apple trees [Malus ×sylvestris (L.) Mill. Var domestica (Borkh.)] on nine dwarfing rootstocks (CG.4013, CG.5179, G.16N, G.16T, M.9 NAKBT337, M.26 EMLA, Supporter 1, Supporter 2, and Supporter 3) were planted at 10 locations (CA, KY MO NC OH 2 in PA SC UT and WA) under the direction of the NC-140 Multistate Research Project. After four growing seasons (through 2002), largest trees were on CG.4013. Smallest trees were on M.9 NAKBT337, Supporter 1, Supporter 2, and Supporter 3. Trees on CG.5179, G.16 N, G.16T, and M.26 EMLA were intermediate. Cumulative root suckering was greatest from trees on CG.4013 and similar from the other rootstocks. CG.4013, CG.5179, and G.16T resulted in the greatest yields per tree in 2002, and M.26 EMLA, M.9 NAKBT337, Supporter 2, and Supporter 1 resulted in the lowest. Cumulatively, CG.4013 resulted in the greatest yields per tree, and M.26 EMLA resulted in the lowest. Rootstock did not affect yield efficiency in 2002, but cumulatively, Supporter 1, Supporter 2, and Supporter 3 resulted in the most efficient trees, and M.26 EMLA the least. Fruit weight in 2002 or on average was not affected by rootstock. Limited data will be presented on CG.3041, CG.5202, and CG.5935, which are planted only at some locations. Data for the fifth season (2003) will be presented.