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Sun-Tay Choi, Ro-Na Bae*, Dae-Sung Chung and Seung-Koo Lee

To investigate quality changes of garlic associated with cultivars and storage conditions, northern type `Seosan' and sub-tropical type `Daeseo' garlics were stored at controlled atmosphere (O2 3%, CO2 5%, -1 ± 1°C) condition, low temperature (-1 ± 1°C), and room temperature (20 ± 5°C). The rate of sprouting, weight loss, enzymatic pyruvic acid content, and degree of greening in crushed garlic were determined during storage. The rate of sprouting was higher in `Daeseo' than in `Seosan' garlic in all storage conditions. Sprouting was effectively suppressed in low temperature and controlled atmosphere storage. Weight loss in `Daeseo' garlic was higher than in `Seosan' garlic. Enzymatic pyruvic acid (EP) contents increased for 3 months storage period, and then decreased gradually as the storage period was prolonged at room or low temperatures. However, EP content decreased dramatically during storage under CA condition in both cultivars. When garlic bulbs were crushed, greening appeared in the garlic stored at low temperature for more than one month. However, greening did not occur in the crushed garlic bulbs stored in CA condition.

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Ro-Na Bae, Ki-Woo Kim, Tae-Choon Kim and Seung-Koo Lee

Anatomical observations of anthocyanin rich cells in `Fuji' apple skins were carried out by light microscopy and electron microscopy. Apple skins with fully developed red color had more layers of anthocyanin-containing epidermal cells than those of green skins. The density of anthocyanin was high in cells of the outer layer of the fruit skins and gradually decreased inward to the flesh. Anthocyanins were frequently found in clusters or in agglomerations that were round in the epidermal cells of the red skins. They accumulated in the inner side of developed vacuoles. Transmission and scanning electron microscopy revealed that the shapes of anthocyanins were cluster style, indeterminable forms, or complete spheres. Anthocyanin seemed to be synthesized around the tonoplast and condensed on the inward side of the vacuole. There was no distinct envelope membrane on the anthocyanin granule in the vacuoles of apple skin cells.

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Sung Kyeom Kim, Duk Jun Yu, Ro Na Bae, Hee Jae Lee and Changhoo Chun

Grafted transplants are widely used for watermelon culture in Korea mainly to reduce the yield and quality losses caused by soil-borne diseases. It is normal practice to cure the grafted transplants under high relative humidity (RH) and low photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) conditions for a few days after grafting to prevent the wilting of the transplants. Transpiration rate (TR) and net photosynthetic rate (NPR), however, could be suppressed under those environmental conditions. In the present study, TR and NPR of the grafted watermelon transplants were compared during graft union formation under 18 environmental conditions combining two air temperatures (20 and 28 °C), three RHs (60%, 80%, and 100%), and three PPF s (0, 100, and 200 μmol·m-2·s-1). Percentages of graft union formation and survival were also evaluated. TR and NPR dramatically decreased just after grafting but slowly recovered 2 to 3 days after grafting at 28 °C. The recovery was clearer at higher PPF and lower RH. On the other hand, the recovery of TR and NPR was not observed in 7 days after grafting at 20 °C. Differences in TR and NPR affected by RH were nonsignificant. Percentage of graft union formation was 98% when air temperature, RH, and PPF were 28 °C, 100%, and 100 μmol·m-2·s-1, respectively, which was the highest among all the treatments. Percentage of survival was over 90% when air temperature was 28 °C and RH was higher than 80% (when vapor pressure deficit was lower than 0.76 kPa). In addition, higher PPF enhanced TR and NPR and promoted rooting and subsequent growth of grafted transplants. Results suggest that the acclimation process for grafted watermelon transplants can be omitted by properly manipulating environmental factors during graft union formation.