Identification of genetic control of ozone (O3) sensitivity is desirable for selection of plant cultivars which are indicators of O3 stress. A cross was made between two cultivars of snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), `Oregon 91' (P1) and `Wade Bush' (P2), an O3-sensitive and O3-insensitive cultivar, respectively. Ten genetic populations (generations), `Oregon 91' (P1), `Wade Bush' (P2), F1, F2, backcrosses to both parents, and all reciprocal crosses, were field planted in each of two summers and evaluated for injury to O3. Ozone responses for the reciprocal crosses were not significantly different for any generation, so injury ratings from the reciprocal crosses were combined for each generation to provide six populations (P1, P2, F1, F2, BC1, and BC2) for analysis. When components of genetic variation were estimated from the six generations, additive genetic variance was the most important component in the total genetic variance available, although dominance variance was also a significant component. There was an inconsistency in the magnitude and the direction of the factors contributing to the dominance effects and also a large environmental component making up the phenotypic variance. Estimates of broad-sense heritability and narrow-sense heritability were 60% and 44%, respectively. Results suggest that O3-sensitive and O3-insensitive selections could be screened and evaluated in an ambient O3 environment. Several generations will be necessary, however, to develop `Bush Blue Lake' type selections that vary only in sensitivity to O3.
Richard A. Reinert and Gwen Eason
Gwendolyn Eason, Richard A. Reinert, and James E. Simon
Three watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum & Nakai] cultivars with different ozone (O3) sensitivities were grown in a charcoal-filtered greenhouse and exposed in continuous-stirred tank reactor chambers to five levels (0, 100, 200, 300, or 400 nL·L-1) of sulfur dioxide (SO2) in the presence (80 nL·L-1) or absence (0 nL·L-1) of ozone (O3) for 4 hours/day, 5 days/week for 22 days. In the presence of O3, SO2 increased foliar injury in all three cultivars, but the impact was greatest for the most O3-sensitive cultivar, `Sugar Baby,' moderate for `Crimson Sweet,' and least for the least O3-sensitive cultivar, `Charleston Gray.' For all cultivars, SO2 intensified O3 suppression of leaf area for the first seven mainstem leaves and of dry weights for aboveground and total plant tissues. Root dry weight was independently suppressed by both pollutants, and the root: top ratio was linearly suppressed by SO2 alone. Sulfur dioxide combined with O3 can be detrimental to crop species such as watermelon. Thus, the potential for SO2 phytotoxicity should not be summarily dismissed, especially in the vicinity of SO2 point sources where O3 co-occurs.
Richard G. Snyder, James E. Simon, Richard A. Reinert, Michael Simini, and Gerald E. Wilcox
Watermelon, Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum & Nakai cv. Sugar Baby, were grown in the field as a fall crop in open-top chambers (OTC) in southwestern Indiana with either charcoal-filtered (CF) or nonfiltered (NF) air. Ozone and sulfur dioxide were continuously monitored in OTC and ambient air. There was a significant decrease in marketable yield by weight (19.9%, P = 0.05), percentage of marketable fruit by number (20.8%, P = 0.10), and total yield by weight (21.5%, P = 0.05) from plants grown in the NF air treatment compared with those grown in CF air. Ozone-induced foliar injury was significantly greater on plants grown under NF conditions. Ambient concentrations of 03 in southwestern Indiana caused foliar injury (P = 0.10) and significant yield loss to a fall crop of watermelons.