Epicuticular waxes were analyzed to explain the visible differences in the waxy bloom of conditioned broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. Group Italica `Green Duke') transplants. Seedlings (22 days old) were subjected to brushing (40 cycles per minute, 1 minute twice daily), wind (7 m·s-1 for 5 minutes twice daily), or moisture-stress conditioning (MSC; visible wilt for 2 to 4 hours daily) for 16 (1987) or 21 (1988) days during transplant production in the greenhouse. The epicuticular waxes of the uppermost fully expanded leaves were removed by dipping detached leaves into methylene chloride. The extract was derivatized with trimethylsilyl reagents and subjected to capillary gas chromatography. The primary epicuticular wax components were the nonpolar C29 compounds nonacosane, nonacosan-15-ol, and nonacosan-15-one, which were identified by mass spectrometry. In a Summer 1987 experiment, cuticle samples taken over time of treatment indicated acclimation to the conditioning treatments relative to untreated plants. After 9 days of treatment, the amount of total epicuticular waxes present on the leaves was reduced 38%, 31%, or 11% by wind, brushing, or MSC, respectively. However, after 15 days of treatment, the amount of cuticle present was reduced 15% by brushing but only 6% by wind and was 17% greater in MSC-treated plants. Two weeks after transplanting to the field there were no differences in the amount or composition of the epicuticular waxes. In Fall 1988, all treatments reduced plant growth, but only MSC tended to increase the amount of C29 epicuticular components during greenhouse production. Differences in the amounts of epicuticular waxes were no longer significant after 8 days in the field.
Joyce G. Latimer and Ray F. Severson
Ki-Cheol Son, Ray F. Severson, and Stanley J. Kays
Methodology was developed for the rapid quantitative and qualitative screening of sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] germplasm for the concentration of the major sweetpotato weevil oviposition stimulant, boehmeryl acetate, and its alcohol, boehmerol. The major surface components were rapidly quantified, using a minimum of plant material. Boehmeryl acetate, present in methylene chloride root extracts, did not degrade when held under normal laboratory conditions for 45 days. Boehmeryl acetate and boehmerol were found only in the outer 1 to 1.2 mm of periderm and the distribution of the compounds appeared to be relatively uniform over the surface of the root.
Ki-Cheol Son, Ray F. Severson, and Stanley J. Kays
Levels of major root surface components for two sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] cultivars that differ in susceptibility to the sweetpotato weevil [Cylas formicarius elegantulus (Summers)] were determined. Analyses were made 30 days before harvest, at harvest, after curing, and after 2 months of storage during two seasons. Significant variation in the amounts of individual components, especially boehmeryl acetate, which is known to be an ovipositional stimulant for the weevil, was found before and after harvest, with season, and between cultivars. These results suggest that variation in field susceptibility of cultivars displaying moderate levels of resistance may be due in part to seasonal variation in the level of ovipositional stimulants.
Jyh-Bin Sun, Ray F. Severson, and Stanley J. Kays
We describe a relatively simple collection procedure for quantifying volatiles in baked sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.]. Volatiles formed during baking `Jewel' and `Centennial' sweetpotatoes at 204C were purged from a baking vessel with He or a HeO2 mixture, collected in cold methylene chloride, and reduced in volume using a Kuderna-Danish concentrator. Volatile components were quantified by capillary gas chromatography and characterized using gas chromatographic-mass spectrometer analysis. Quantitatively, the major components were identified as 2-furaldehyde; 2-furanmethanol; benzaldehyde; 5-methyl-2-furfural; phenylacetaldehyde; 3-hydroxy-2-methyl-4 H -pyran-4-one; 2,3-dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-4 H- pyran-4-one; and 5-hydroxy-methyl-2-furancarboxaldehyde. Some quantitatively minor compounds were also identified. The volatile collection system is reproducible for quantitative comparisons among breeding lines.
Stanley J. Kays, Jyh-Bin Sun, and Ray F. Severson
Changes in the concentration of individual sugars in sweetpotato storage roots with cooking and their relationship to the formation of volatile compounds were studied. During cooking maltose concentration increased from 0.03% fwt at 25.C to a maximum of 4.33% at WC. Microwave pretreatment (2-4 minutes) resulted in a significant decrease in amounts of maltose and volatiles formed. At 80°C, approximately 80% of maltose synthesis was inhibited when pretreated with microwaves. Adding maltose into microwave pretreated samples and then cooking in a convection oven restored most of the volatile profile with the exception of phenylacetaldehyde. Upon heating (200°C), sweetpotato root material that was insoluble in both methanol and methylene chloride produced similar volatile profiles to those from sweetpotatoes baked conventionally. Volatiles derived via thermal degradation of the non-polar methylenc chloride fraction and the polar methanol fraction did not display chromatographic profiles similar to those from conventionally baked sweetpotatoes. Initial reactions in the formation of critical volatiles appear to occur in the methanol and methylene chloride insoluble components. Maltol (3-hydroxy-2-methyl-4-pyrone) was found to be one of the critical components making up the characteristic aroma of baked sweetpotatoes. It was concluded that maltose represents a primary precursor for many of the volatile compounds emanating from baked `Jewel' sweetpotatoes and the formation of these volatiles appears to involve both enzymatic and thermal reactions.
Ki-Cheol Son, Ray F. Severson, Richard F. Arrendale, and Stanley J. Kays
Methodology was developed for the extraction of surface components of sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] storage roots. Surface components of storage roots were quantitatively extracted with methylene chloride using 8-minute ultrasonication. After removal of the solvent, the extract was treated with 3 Tri Sil-Z:1 trimethylsilylimidazol (v/v) to convert components with hydroxyl moieties to silyl ethers and then separated on a SE-54 fused silica capillary column. Distinctly different gas chromatography profiles were found between lines displaying moderate levels of resistance (`Resisto', `Regal', `Jewel') to the sweetpotato weevil [Cylas formicarius elgantulus (summers)] and weevil-susceptible lines (`Centennial', SC 1149-19, W-115), indicating a possible role of surface components in insect response. Chromatographic fractionation techniques were developed for separation of major components or groups of components. The results will allow subsequent bioassaying for the presence of an ovipositional stimulant(s) and other weevil behavior-modulating compounds and their chemical characterization.
Ki-Cheol Son, Ray F. Severson, Maurice E. Snook, and Stanley J. Kays
Methanol extracts of external (outer 3 mm) and interior root tissue of four sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] cultivars (`Centennial', `Jewel', `Regal', and `Resisto') having different levels of susceptibility to the sweetpotato weevil [Cylas formicarius elegantulus Summer] were analyzed for simple carbohydrates (fructose, glucose, sucrose, inositol) and organic acids (malic, citric, quinic) by gas chromatography and for phenolics (caffeic acid, caffeoylquinic acids, rutin) by high-performance liquid chromatography. There were significant differences among cultivars in the concentrations of total sugars and phenolics in the external tissue (P < 0.05). In addition, the distribution of carbohydrates, organic acids, and chlorogenic acid [3-O-caffeoylquinic acid] differed between external and interior tissues. Sucrose was the major water-soluble carbohydrate in all cultivars. With the exception of malic acid, the concentration of carbohydrates, organic acids, and phenolics did not correlate with cultivar susceptibility to the sweetpotato weevil.
Jyh-Bin Sun, Ray F. Severson, William S. Schlotzhauer, and Stanley J. Kays
Thermal degradation of fractions from sweetpotato roots (`Jewel') was conducted with gas chromatographymass spectrometry to identify precursors of critical flavor volatiles. Upon heating (200 C), sweetpotato root material that was insoluble in methanol and methylene chloride produced similar volatile profiles to those from sweetpotatoes baked conventionally. Volatiles derived via thermal degradation of the nonpolar methylene chloride fraction and the polar methanol fraction did not display chromatographic profiles similar to those from conventionally baked sweetpotatoes. Initial reactions in the formation of critical volatiles appear to occur in the methanol and methylene chloride insoluble components. Maltol (3-hydroxy-2-methyl-4-pyrone) was found to be one of the critical components making up the characteristic aroma of baked sweetpotatoes. Integration of an analytical technique for the measurement of flavor into sweetpotato breeding programs could potentially facilitate the selection of improved and/or unique flavor types.