You are looking at 1 - 7 of 7 items for
- Author or Editor: Ray D William x
Extension workers often identify production, marketing, managerial, or educational constraints that reduce agricultural efficiencies. In Oregon, problems expressed by growers of several horticultural crops appeared to have a common soil management component. Some Christmas tree growers, for example, complained about poor vigor and growth of 2nd- or 3rd-cycle trees that were planted immediately after harvest of the previous crop. Growers reasoned that poor growth (and reduced marketability) might be caused by increasing concentrations of herbicide residues that resulted from yearly applications of atrazine or hexazinone, rather than soil erosion and related soil management problems. Grape producers and lily bulb growers were concerned about soil erosion, since crops were planted parallel to the slope. Frequent mechanical harvesting of brambles led to growers’ fears of soil compaction, while fruit growers noted slower rates of water infiltration in orchards where natural vegetation is managed with a flail compared to areas interplanted with a sod.
Learning style preferences contribute to predictable actions by people. Basic researchers are fundamentally different than applied researchers in horticulture. Dilemmas associated with pesticides, worker protection, water, and labor issues often are related to differences in perception by relational versus linear thinkers. A participatory discussion will focus on these differences and how they can be combined to create dynamic and creative learning around complex issues facing horticulturists and consumers during the 1990's.
Field experiment on production systems of `Selva' day-neutral and `Totem' June-bearing strawberry was established in 1995 on the spring-killed cover crop mulched plots using randomized complete-block design. Seven soil cover treatments consisted of `Wheeler' rye (Secale cereale) and `Micah' and `Steptoe' barley (Hordium vulgare), `Micah' residue applied on soil surface, a wedge of perlite (artificial medium) placed next to strawberry row, perlite with `Wheeler' rye, and no treatment were used. During the early summer, cover crops were replanted between strawberry rows and mowed down after 6 weeks. In both cultivars, plant growth doubled during mid-summer, and `Micah'on surface produced better growth than the growth in other treatments. No significant difference was found on CO2 assimilation rate (mmol·m–2·s–1), leaflet length, and number of leaves and runners among treatments (P ≥ 0.1). Yield of `Totem' was ignored during the establishment year. In `Selva', `Micah' residue on surface produced 36% more crowns per plant and the greatest total yield than that of any other treatment. `Micah' on surface produced 50% more shoot biomass and 45% greater yield compared to `Micah' barley planted in the plot. Total `Selva' yield was 61% greater in perlite treatment than the yield in perlite with `Wheeler' rye and 31% greater than the control treatment. Comparison of `Selva' strawberry total yield and average fruit production between cover crops vs. control treatment using non-orthogonal contrast indicated no significant difference might suggests no detrimental interaction between cover crops and strawberry.
Fall-planted cover crops killed in spring is practiced in strawberry cultivation in different regions of the North America. These systems have shown significant weed suppression and conservation of soil without significant yield reduction in strawberry. During the establishment season, this study was initiated to assess weed suppression with cover crops (`Wheeler' rye and `Micah' and `Steptoe' barley) along with perlite, an artificial plant medium. Strawberry (`Selva' and `Totem') plant growth and weed biomass were measured during 1995-96 season. Small-seeded summer annual weeds were suppressed in cover crop treatments compared to control treatment. `Micah' barley in growth phase suppressed more than 81% of the total weed biomass compared to control plots with no cover crop in early spring. However, in early summer, cover crop residues failed to suppress different types of weeds 60 days after killing of cereal with herbicide (2% glyphosate). Distinct differences in strawberry plant growth were evident between the cover crop treatments and non-cover crop treatments including `Micah' applied on surface. Strawberry growth was doubled during 10 July to 15 Aug. in both cultivars. `Micah' barley applied on surface produced better growth in both strawberry varieties than the growth in other treatments. `Micah' barley applied on soil surface produced 50% more strawberry shoot biomass may indicate the root competition between cover crops and strawberry.
Nitrogen (N) management in container nurseries is part of a complex system. Working within this system, nursery owners, managers and employees routinely make N management decisions that have consequences for the immediate nursery environment (e.g., plant growth, yield, disease susceptibility, water quality) as well as areas beyond nursery boundaries (e.g., surface and groundwater quality, public perception). Research approaches often address parts of the system associated with the immediate nursery environment and purpose. As a result, best management practices that contribute to greater N use efficiency have been developed. Research approaches that consider the whole system reveal novel relationships and patterns that identify areas for future research and may direct future management decisions. To investigate N management from a whole system perspective, a group of nursery managers from Oregon and scientists from Oregon State University met three times between 2001 and 2003. Growers drew their N management systems and identified components, relationships and feedback loops using an ActionGram technique. From this information, researchers developed Group-based On-site Active Learning (GOAL). GOAL combines Action-Grams and the Adaptive Cycle at container nursery sites. In this case, N flow and management in container production systems served as the topic of active learning. Managers and employees from four wholesale container nurseries evaluated the GOAL exercise. After completing GOAL, 94% of participants indicated that they learned a new idea or concept about N cycling in their container nursery. Of those, 100% gained new ideas and concepts from peers and colleagues present at the meeting. In addition, 60% gained new ideas and concepts from researchers and 60% developed their own ideas and concepts. GOAL is a learning tool that provides a simple, convenient, interactive format for investigating complex systems.
Gaps in learning occur when synthesis of factual information is assumed, delayed, or taken out of a realistic context. We are exploring wholes, simulations, case studies, natural resource issues, and interactive learning as ways to improve life-long inquiry and action. Realistic situations are described for student/adult participatory learning. Both group and individual learning are blended where facts are integrated at the “moment of learning” rather than a teaching moment. Teachers become coaches, facilitators, and providers of spontaneous lecturettes. Enthusiasm, participation and ownership by students and adults are spectacular. We've invented farmer-scientist focus sessions (FSFS) along with Rapid, iterative, interactive posters (RIIP). It's fun and seems to meet people's needs for complex topics and issues.
In a world of rapid and unpredictable change, land grant universities must refocus their efforts on becoming more effective learning organizations. This poster addresses the critical opportunities, challenges, and tensions LGUs will face as they seek to enhance the continuous learning process and thereby flourish in the future.