In the Caborca area, water scarcity is the main problem for the farmers, because of the depletion of the aquifer. This is the main reason why they are focusing on orchards and vegetables. Melon is the vegetable annual crop more extensively grown in this area and is furrow-irrigated with 120 cm of water. But, because of the scarcity of water, it is necessary to use drip irrigation. The objective of this study was to validate in a commercial field (15 ha) the effects of drip irrigation system on the water use, yield, and quality of two honeydew melon varieties (green flesh and orange flesh) in the Caborca area. Our results indicate that, with 50 cm of water applied, yields were 2146 to 2802 boxes/ha for green flesh and orange flesh, respectively. The predominant sizes were 4s and 5s with 25% and 38% for green flesh, and 5s and 6s with 42% and 36% for orange flesh. These sizes are the best for the exportation market.
Fabián Robles-Contreras and Raul Leonel Grijalva-Contreras
Raúl Leonel Grijalva Contreras and Fabian Rubles Contreras
A major obstacle to economic production of deciduous fruit tree under desert conditions is an insufficient period of chilling temperatures. Inadequate chilling on apricot may result in poor and uneven budbreak, reduced and delayed foliage development, sparse bloom, poor fruit set, and/or early grown cesation, with the objective of improve budbreak, applications of Hidrogen Cyanamide (H2 C N2) were made to mature apricot `Canino' trees on January 30. Two rates of H2 C N2 and a control were evalluated for that proposal. Amount of chilling accumulated was 360 chill hours according Da Motta model. Hidrogen Cyanamide advanced budbreak 7 days at the highest rate as compared to control. Cumulative percent budbreak on March 15 were 40, 64 and 72% for o, 0.75 and 1.5% respectively. In this year, bud abscission was similar for all the treatments.
Adán Fimbres Fontes and Raúl Leonel Grijalva Contreras
Asparagus production in the past years has been increasing very rapidly and now totals 5000 ha. The main problem in this zone is the depletion of the aquifer and it is important to use this resource carefully. During 1999, an experiment of drip irrigation in asparagus was conducted. Three treatments were applied: 50%, 75%, and 100% of the evaporation from a pan evaporation type A. The results of the statistical analysis indicated that the best treatment was 100% with a yield of 517 boxes/ha and 183 cm of water applied. The lowest yield (290 boxes/ha) was with 50% and 91 cm of water applied.
Raul Leonel Grijalva-Contreras and Arturo Lopez-Carvajal
Almond production in hot climate areas of Mexico uses low-chilling cultivars. One problem in young almond trees is that timely leaf drop does not occur; therefore, budbreak is late and uneven. With the objective of chemical defoliation, foliar applications of different compounds [urea (5%), ZnSO4 (5%), CuSO4 (5%), NH4NO3 (5%), ZnSO4 (2.5%) + urea (1.5%)], hand defoliation, and a nondefoliation control were made on `R-633' young almond trees (2 years old). The percent defoliation was high (77% to 86%) after 6 days of the application in the majority of treatments, except for NH4NO3 (5%), urea (5%), and the control; but 3 days later, all treatments showed >80% defoliation. Nondefoliated trees had an uneven budbreak and occurred 3 and 6 days later. The yield was greater for ZnSO4, with 435 g/tree and only 55.6 g/tree for the control. Fruit quality was the same for all treatments. No injury to branches were observed with any compounds.
Raul Leonel Grijalva-Contreras, Francisco Lopez-Vilches and Victor Salvador-Rivas
The Growers Club provides a good alternative for technology transfer generation in experiment stations, universities, and other research institutions in Mexico. At this time, there are 10 Growers Clubs in northwest Mexico, mainly in Sonora and Sinaloa states. During 1996, in the agricultural area in Caborca, Sonora, the Grower Club “REME”-SOCOADA was formed with 10 members—all of them are willing to adopt new technologies. The main goal of this club is to improve the yield using the validation of new agricultural practices and evaluation of genetic material from different crops (annual crops, vegetables, fruit trees, and forage). We have six demonstration lots in different locations and we are planning to increase these to 11 and we will publish the results that we are going to get from these lots.
Fabian Robles-Contreras, Manuel de Jesus Valenzuela-Ruiz, Raul Leonel Grijalva-Contreras* and Ruben Macias-Duarte
The grape crop is important in Sonora State, Mexico, even though the grape growers have some problems that put in risk its continuity. To decide the moment of pruning time is one of the important decisions that the grower must done, because that depends partly the moment and the magnitude the budbreak appeared. The objective of this study was to determine the pruning time using the Effective Chilling Hours (ECH) obtained from the climatologic station. In a commercial lot of the Superior Seedless variety, we studied the effects of pruning at different times depending on the accumulation of ECH (150, 200, 250, 350, and 400). The ECH was calculated by adding the hours that the temperature stayed in following rank 0 °C < X < 10 °C, reducing the hours when the temperature was greater or equal to 25 °C. The data used to calculate this were obtained from the two climatologic stations near the lot in study. The effect in the budbreak was studied in canes and spurs. The results obtained in this study show that the final budbreak in canes as in spurs were not affected by the treatments in study and it was 76.5% and 81.8% for canes and spurs respectively. There is a direct relation (R 2 = 0.94) between the ECH at pruning time and the percentage of early budbreak in the canes—from 5.6% (150 ECH) to 54.1% (400 ECH). Whereas in spurs, the early budbreak was favored when pruning is done after at least 200 ECH.
Manuel de Jesus Valenzuela-Ruiz, Raul Leonel Grijalva-Contreras*, Fabian Robles-Contreras and Ruben Macias-Duarte
The Caborca, Sonora, region, is the main producing zone of raisins grape in Mexico, with a surface of 5000 ha. Nevertheless although that produce raisins of excellent quality, it is frequent that during the drying time, some rain ocurre and cause loses in yield up to a 30% and the quality is affected. The objective of this study was the evaluation of several chemical disecantes agents to reduce the drying time of the raisins grape. This study was carry in the INIFAP Caborca. We evaluate eleven treatments containing diferent concentrations of Metil Oleate, Potassium Carbonate, Potassium Sorbate and combinations of these products, a mesh and the control were included, these applications were made immediately after cut the grape, once it was tended on the bed. The results indicate that the best treatment were the mixture made from Metil Oleate plus Potassium Carbonate at 4% both products followed by the same mixture at 2%, those treatments reduced the drying time in a 50% and 35 % respecively. When using the mesh the drying time was extend, it need 4 days more than the control, since its total time of drying was 21 days. It is important to note that the treatments that contain the mixture of metil oleate and potassium carbonate and the mesh not presented rotting problems, during the drying stage.
Manuel de Jesus Valenzuela-Ruiz, Fabian Robles-Contreras, Raul Leonel Grijalva-Contreras* and Ruben Macias-Duarte
In the Northwest of Mexico, grape is one of the main crops, specially for table grape (18,000 ha), the `Flame seedless' is one of the important cultivars. Some of the main problems present in this region is the shortage and high cost of the water, nematode and salinity. The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the effect of `Harmony' rootstock on `Flame seedless' for table grape. This study was caried in the INIFAP Caborca during 2001 cycle and consisted of ten plants of `Flame Seedless' on `Harmony' rootstock and ten control plants under the drip irrigation system, the statistical design used was completely randomized. The results obtained observe not negative effect for the `Harmony' rootstock on the phenology of `Flame seedless' (budbreak, flowering and color develpment). The effect was positive since harvest date advanced in 4 days (4 June), where as the control harvest was in 8 June, as far as color were no differences, because both treatments colored well, as far as quality this was better on rootstock than that was not grafted (greather berry size and cluster uniformity). The yield was 1,200 boxes/ha when we used rootstock, 335 boxes more than control and obtaining a saving cost of 100% in the nematode control and 30% in water consumption.
Raul Leonel Grijalva-Contreras*, Ruben Macias-Duarte, Manuel de Jesus Valenzuela-Ruiz and Fabian Robles-Contreras
The production of vegetables in Mexico under greenhouse conditions has been increased notably during the last years. Actually the area is about 1,250 ha. Tomatoes is the vegetables more important with 70%. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate ten beef tomatoes varieties growing on soil medium and to choice those with high yield, fruit quality and disease resistant. The experiment was carried out on the Experimental Station (INIFAP-CIRNO) inside Polyethylene greenhouse. The soil characteristics are clay loam texture, electrical conductivity (1.22 ds·m-1 and Ph 7.96). The date seedling establishment on 25 Oct. 2003 (28 days after sow seed). The plant density used was of 3.78 plants per square meter. The harvest period occurred from 20 feb. Feb. 20 to 27 May and they were carried out an average of sixteen cutting. There were nonsignificant differences in yield and weight fruit among varieties. Yield varied from 26.2 and 19.2 kg·m-2. The varieties with more yield were Clarion, GC-29125, Attention, Thomas and Charleston with 26.2, 24.7, 24.4, 24.2 and 21.5 kg·m-2, respectively. Fruit weight varied from 96.5 to 174.0 grams per fruit. The important insect pests in this year were Leaf Miner (Lyriomyza sp.); Army worm (Heliothis op.) and white fly (Bemissia sp.) however, we have not recorded any important disease during this trial.
Ruben Macias-Duarte, Raul Leonel Grijalva-Contreras*, Manuel de Jesus Valenzuela-Ruiz and Fabian Robles-Contreras
The producers areas of onion in Mexico, are affected by the existence and increment of pathogens organisms of the soil like the fungus Pyrenochaeta terrestris, This problem increased its presence and damages due to the consecutive establishment of this vegetable year with year on the same soils. The fungus is activated and this disease developed when the soil temperature is increased. The disease infection of the plants causes rot and death of roots and small bulbs whit no commercial value, and low yields. According that the objective of the present research was to evaluate three treatments for the control of this organism pathogen: The experiment was carried out on INIFAP-CIRNO Experimental Station on a severally infested soil whit this fungus. The sow date was on 6 Jan. 2002, in this trial we used “local” variety. The treatments evaluated were Trichoderma (30 L·ha-1), Humega 8% (180 L·ha-1), Isofert 25 (400 L·ha-1) and a control (without treatment). The products were applied using the drip irrigation system. The results indicate that the treatments with Trichoderma and Humega 8% presented the lower percent of disease roots with 33% and those of more incidence were the control and Isofert 25 with 46% and 47% of disease roots, respectively. The results show 13% efficiency with the use of Trichoderma with respect to control; however this treatment did not affect the bulb weight and yield, control treatment obtained the greatest bulb weight and yield with 212 g for bulb and 80.9 t·ha-1 against 196 g and 71.9 t·ha-1, respectively, of the Trichoderma, which was seemingly a secondary negative effect in decrement the yield.